Print

საქართველოს ადმინისტრაციული მოწყობის ისტორია

saba saluaSvili

 

saqarTvelos administraciuli mowyobis

istoriuli mimoxilva farnavazidan dRemde

 

Tbilisi

2012

 

 

ავტობიოგრაფია

 

მე, საბა მიხეილის ძე სალუაშვილი დავიბადე 1990 . 23 მაისს, . თბილისში.

_ 2007 წელს დავამთავრე _ . თბილისის ქართული საშუალო სკოლა ,,ლაშარი~;

_ 2011 წელს წარჩინებით დავამთავრე _ ივ. ჯავახიშვილის სახელობის თბილისის სახელმწიფო უნივერსიტეტის ჰუმანიტარულ მეცნიერებათა ფაკულტეტი, ისტორიის მიმართულებით. მომენიჭა _ ისტორიის ბაკალავრის ხარისხი;

 _ თსუ-ში სწავლის  განმავლობაში [2007-2011 წ.წ.], სხვადასხვა  პედაგოგის ხელმძღვანელობით ჩატარებული სამეცნიერო კვლევის შედეგების ჩამონათვალი ასეთია:

_ მომზადებული და გამოქვეყნებულია 39 სტატია;

_ დამუშავებულ საკითხთა ნაწილი გაშუქებულია 14 კონფერენციაზე;

_ საერთო ჯამში, ზემოთქმულის ბაზაზე დაბეჭდილია 21 მონოგრაფია.

 

_ 2007-2010 სასწავლო წლის მანძილზე გახლდით:

. სტუდენტური პროექტის `წმ. ასურელ მამათა კვალდაკვალ~ ერთ-ერთი დამფუძნებელი. 2009 წლიდან, საქართველოს კათოლიკოს-პატრიარქის, უწმიდესისა და უნეტარესის ილია II კურთხევით, აღნიშნული პროექტი ყოველწლიურად სრულდება;

. 2009 წელს ჩემი ინიციატივით დაარსებული: თსუ- ჰუმანიტარულ-მეცნიერებათა ფაკულტეტის სტუდენტ-ისტორიკოსთა სასწავლო-შემოქმედებითი გაზეთ  `ჟამთააღმწერის~ მთავარი რედაქტორი. ღმერთის შეწევნით დაიბეჭდა გაზეთის 18 ნომერი;

. საქართველოს პრეზიდენტის სახელობის სტიპენდიანტი;

 

_ 2011 წ. ვიყავი: , თბილისის კერძო საშუალო სკოლა `სარკმელი~- ისტორიის მასწავლებელი;

_ 2012 წლიდან ვარ: `საქართველოს ცენტრალური არქივის _ საისტორიო ცენტრალური არქივის სამეცნიერო-მეთოდიკური მუშაობისა და დაკომპლექტების განყოფილების სპეციალისტი.

_2013 წელს დავამთავრე საქართველოს წმანდრია პირველწოდებულის სახქართული უნივერსიტეტის 

მაგისტრატურა. მომენიჭა - ისტორიის მაგისტრის ხარისხი;

_2013 წლიდან ვარ საქართველოს წმანდრია პირველწოდებულის სახქართული უნივერსიტეტის 

დოქტორანტი.

 

 

saqarTvelos administraciuli mowyobis

istoriuli mimoxilva

farnavazidan dRemde

 

Sesavali

kavkasia msoflio regionTagan erT-erTi pirvelia, sadac saxelmwifoebri warmonaqmnebi uZvelesi droidan arsebobda. maT Soris, Tavis Rirseuli adgili ukavia _ amierkavkasiis terito-riaze warmoqmnil saxelmwifoebriv erTeulebs. amis dasturad SegviZlia gavixsenoT, jer kidev  Zv.w. XIII-XII da Zv.w. IX s-idan, Sesabamisad _ asurul da urartul lursmul warwerebSi moxseniebuli iseTi koaliciuri gaerTianebebi, rogoricaa _ `subarus qveynebi~, `zemo zRvis qveynebi~ da `nairis qveynebi~.

Tavis mxriv _ `... `subaru~ moicavda teritorias qaSiaris mTa-sa (dRevandeli tur-abdini) da aRmosavleT evfratis (dRevan-deli murad-su) dinebas Soris, `nairi~ mdebareobda mis Crdi-loeTiT md. yara-sus (dasavleT evfrati) dinebaze da massa da murad-sus dinebaTa Soris mdebare mxares, xolo `zemo zRvis-pira qveynebi~ kidev ufro CrdiloeTiT, Savi zRvis sanapiroze mdebare mxares gulisxmobda...~[1].

`nairis qveynebis~ saTaveSi idga _ diaoxi, romelic uZveles qarTul samxreT-dasavleT saxelmwifoebriv gaerTianebad SeiZleba CaiTvalos.

mecnierTa umavlesoba Zv.w. XIII-XII s.s. asurul warwerebSi moxseniebul `zemo zRvas~ _ Sav zRvasTan aigivebs, rac, Tavis mxriv, Zalzed mniSvnelovania Zveli kolxeTis samefos istoriisaTvis.

kolxa, diaoxis msgavsad, adreuli saxelmwifos tips war-moadgenda, Tumca mogvianebiT, rogorc es `argonavtebis~ miTi-danac naTlad Cans, kolxeTi ukve sakmaod Zlieri saxelmwifoa _ `... kolxeTi (kolxa) ukve erTiani politikuri erTeulia Tavisi `mefiT~, `samefo qalaqebiT~, provinciebis gamgebeli mefisnac-vlebiT da a.S.... es transformacia tiglaTfileser I-is Semdgom xanaSi, Zv.w. XI_IX s.s. manZilzea savaraudebeli. swored am dros kolxa (kolxeTi) gadaiqca myar da Zlier gaerTianebad, romel-mac Tavisi gavlena ganavrco samxreT-aRmosavleT da aRmosavleT SavizRvispireTis vrcel miwa-wyalze. aman, ueWvelia, xeli Seuwyo am mxareSi mcxovrebi tomebis kulturuli monapovrebis urTi-erTgaziarebas da aq mcxovrebi mosaxleobis im kulturuli erTobis Camoyalibebasa da ganmtkicebas, romelic `kolxuri kulturis~ saxeliTaa cnobili...~[2].

Zv.w. VIII s-is II naxevarSi kavkasia kimerielebisa da skviTebis Semosevis obieqti xdeba _ `...skviTebisa da kimerielebis Semoseva ramdenime nakadad moxda: 1. Zv.w. VIII saukunis 30-ian Tu 20-ian wlebSi wina azias, meotida-kolxeTis gziT, azovisa da Savi zRvis aRmosavleT sanapiroebiT (herodotes mixedviT) Semoesien kimerielebi; 2. cota ufro gvian, derbendis gavliT, kaspiis zRvis dasavleT sanapirodan (herodotesve cnobiT) wina aziaSi movidnen skviTebi; 3. rogorc Cans, maTi Semosevebi moxda, agreTve, darialiTa da kavkasionis sxva gadmosasvlelebiT (razec miuTiTebs arqeologiuri masala)...~[3]. kimerielebisa da skviTebis Semosevebis Sedegad ganadgurda kolxeTis samefo da _ `...kolxas samefos mosaxleobam gadainacvla ufro Crdilo-eTiT, md. Woroxisa da md. rionis auzSi. aq Camoyalibda saxelm-wifo, romelsac aqtiuri ekonomikuri kavSirurTierTobebi hqonda saberZneTis polisebTan (qalaq-saxelmwifoebTan). am urTierTobas daemTxva masobrivi berZnuli kolonizaciis procesi xmelTa-SuazRvispireTsa da SavizRvispireTSi...~[4].

aRmosavleTSavizRvispireTSi daarsebuli berZnuli koloniebi: fazisi (foTi), dioskuria (soxumi), gienosi (oCamCire), pitiunti (biWvinTa), aqtiur kavSirSi arian kolxeTis samefosTan da am saxelmwifos struqturis nawiladac iqcnen. swored amis dasturia `kolxuri TeTris~ arseboba.

_ `...qr. w.a-mde V s-dan kolxeTi SedarebiT sustdeba, mis teritoriaze Cndebian aqemenianTa iranis moxeleni. adrindeli `basilevsis~ nacvlad aq mxolod `arxonti~ (erisTavi) zis, romelic garkveuli raodenobis xarks uxdis irans. IV s-is bolos dasustebuli kolxeTi (egrisi) mSvidobiani gziT (dinas-tiuri qorwineba) SeuerTdeba qarTlis axladwarmoqmnil samefos. faqtiurad es iyo saqarTvelos istoriaSi politikuri uniis (quji-farnavazis) pirveli faqti...~[5].

Nnebismieri saxelmwifos asrebobis erT-erT mTavar funda-ments qveynis administraciuli dayofa warmoadgens. Cveni winamdebare Tematikis ganxilvis mizans sworedac, rom qarTuli saxelmwifos mravalsaukunovani arsebobis manZilze, misi administraciuli dayofis cvalebadobis istoriis Cveneba warmoadgens.

 

vaxuStis mier aRwerili

saqarTvelos sazRvrebi

uSualod Cven sakvlev Temaze saubris dawyebamde, modiT Tvali gadavavloT didi qarTveli mecnieris vaxuSti batoni-Svilis naSrom _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~-Si warmod-genil saqarTvelos istoriul sazRvrebs.

vaxuSti, saqarTvelos aRmosavleT sazRvris aRwerisas brZanebs _ `...viwyebT alaznis SesarTavidam. sad ars xoranTa, mas qveiT dids alazans moerTvis giSis-wyali, romeli gamosdis kavkass, kulmuxsa da ÀereTs  Soriss, da modis giSamde Cdilodam samÃriT, merme aRmosavlidam dasavliT. aramed giSi ars mTis Zirs... am giSis-wyals moerTvis Crdilodam qurmuxis-wyali...~[6].

saqarTvelos samxreT sazRvarTan dakavSirebiT vaxuSti aRniSnavs _ `...somxiTisa, erevnisa da amisi gamyofeli ars mTa didi, maRali da maradis Tovliani, da kalTaTa tyiani... romeli warivlis dasavliT artanamde, xolo aRmosavliT ransa da gelaquns Sua ganvlis da vidre raxsadmde mivals. mTisa amis samÃriT kerZi somxiT-erevnisa ars, xolo CrdiloT kerZi bedrujisa da ranisa... xolo mTa mcire bedrujisa Zes CrdiloeTiT da samÃriT, da miadgebis winTqmuls erevnis mTas. aRmosavleTis kerZi mTisa amisa ars ranisa, da dasavliT kerZi ars bedrujisa...~[7].

cota qvemoT, sadac saubaria abocis aRweraze igi ase brZa-nebs _ `...mTa irjanisa da aw yaraRajad wodebuli... am mTis dasavliT kerZi ars aboci, aw yaiyulad wodebuli, garmoxveuli sruliad mTiTa da SuaSi vake... palakaciosa da abocs Soris ars mTa aRbabasi, da igi mTa ars sazRvari qarTlisa da yarsisa, vidre TeTr-cixemde da tbamde taSaRanisa~[8].

samxreTis sazRvris xazi Semdegnairad grZeldeba _ `...samÃriT mTa nialis yurisa, romeli mdebareobs golis tbidam anu xaveTidam yarsis mTamde anu fosos wyaros-Tavamde, aRmosav-leTidam dasavleTad~[9];

xolo kolisaTvis aRwerisas ki brZanebs _ `...mzRvris kolas: aRmosavliT mTa yarsisa, romeli mdebareobs yalnus mTidam nialis-yuris mTamde...~[10].;

xolo basianis sazRvris gadmocemisas aRniSnavs _ `...xolo olTis-narimanisa da idis samriT ars, irijlus mTas iqiT, basiani. da ese basiani Tumca ars somxiTisa, aramed, Semdgomad bagrationTa mefobisa, ra daipyres maT, ars mieriT samcxisa...~[11].

_ `...vaxuStis cnobiT, qarTlis aRmosavleT nawilisa da gardabnis saerisTavos nawilis sazRvrebia: `aRmosavleTiT mtkvari da, xunanis gamarTebiT, bedrujis aRmosavleTis mcire mTa...~;amasTan `nagebis aRmosavliTY da sariT ars veli didi yaraiisa... xolo mtkvris kideTa Wala didi~...~[12].

rac Seexeba samxreT-dasavleT sazRvars, vaxuSti brZanebs: _ `WaneTis mTas iqiT, ars WaneTi, da uwodeben lazsave. ars ese Savi zRvis kidis wadevnebiT, goniidam trapizonis sazRvramde... ars qalaqi mcire riza, zRvis kidezed. moerTvis munve mdinare misive zRvisa, da gamosdis masve mTasa da modis CdiloT. xolo amis dasavliT Camovardebis mcire mTa, kninRa zRvamde, WaneTis mTidam. da ese ars sazRvari saqarTvelosi da saberZneTisa. aqa ars rkinis-palo, aqav ars satyepela...~[13].

vaxuSti aseve detalurad aRgviwers saqarTvelos Crdilo-dasavleT da CrdiloeTis sazRvars.

vaxuStis aRweriT Crdilo-dasavleTi sazRvaria _ `...dasav-liT zRva da kappetis mdinare... CdiloT mzRvris mTa kavkasi, samriT zRva Savi. sigrZe amisi ars anakofiidam kappetis mdina-remde anu zRvamde; gani zRvidam kavkasis Txemamde... xolo am afxazeTs iqiT, kappetis wylis dasavleTs, bagrationT Jams aqeT aqamomde uwodeben jiqeTs... am jiqeTis CdiloT kerZos, kavkasis mTis iqiTs kerZs zRvamde... da ars adgili ese yovliTurT afxazeTisa...~[14].

rac Seexeba CrdiloeTs, svaneTis aRwerisas brZanebs _ `... CdiloT did-yabarT-Cerqesa da amas svaneTs Sorisi kavkasia...~[15]; aseve kavkasias miuyveba raWis CrdiloeTi sazRvaric _ `...CdiloT mzRvris raWas kavkasi...~[16].

CrdiloeTis sazRvris Semofargvla dvaleTze saubriT grZeldeba. vaxuStis cnobiT, dvaleTs aRmosavleTiT aqvs _ `...Trusosa da evis sazRvari, merme myinvaris kavkasi da axotis kavkasi, romelni Zenan samridam Cdilod, da daswydebis evis bolos mdinaresa zeda lomeksa, merme lomekis mdinare, vidre xeTaZe-Cerqezis mTamde; samriT mzRvris kavkasi, ჴevis-yelidam warsruli dasavleTad, romel ars burc-sabZelamde, da zekara, kedela da raWa-didgor-basians Soris kavkasni; xolo CrdiloT Cerqezsa da mas Soris mTa maRali, da dasavleTiT mzRvris kavkasive raWasa  da JReles Sorisi...~[17]; xolo dvaleTis dasavleTs, kvlav kavkasionis qedis Txemze atarebs.

CrdiloeTis sazRvarze saubari darialis xeobis aRweriT grZledeba _ `...gveleTa qveviT erTvis... aragvsve evi samr-aRmosavleTidam, gamosdis gudamayarisa da ZurZukis kavkassa... am evs qveiT daviwrovdebis evi ese kldiTa, da aqa ars cixe daviTisa... amas qveiT ars dariela aragvis aRmosavliT, kidesa zeda... amas qveiT nasasaxlevi mefeTa...~[18];

Mis mier mocemul qistetis aRweraSi vkiTxulobT_ `...sada daivakebs mdinare aragvi anu lomeki, am aragvs, xeTaZis dabis zeiT, erTvis qisteTis-wyali da ZurZukisa... xolo sad iyrebian orni ese mdinareni, mun ars SuaSi jariexi...~[19]. `...xolo ama qist-ZurZukis aRmosavleTad ars RliRveTi...~[20].

TuSeTis aRwerisas ki vkiTxulobT - `...kavkass iqiT, ars wova; wovas qveiT gomeweri da mis qveiT CaRma... mzRvris orsav TuSeTs: aRmosavliT kavkasi havarsa, CaCansa da amas Soris... CrdiloT kavkasi...~[21].

maSasadame, vaxuStis mier aRwerili saqarTvelos isto-riuli sazRvari, Tanamedrove kartografiuli interpret-taciiT, aseT saxes Rebulobs _ `...saqarTvelos aRmosavleTiT sazRvari iwyeba md. giSiswylis saTavidan, miuyveba mas md. alaznis SesarTavamde, Semdeg modis samxreTisaken md. alaznis da md. ioris SesarTavamde; md. alaznis mtkvarTan SesarTavidan sazRvris xazi aRma miuyveba md. mtkvars da md. aRsTafas Sesar-Tavidan midis samxreTiT sevanis qedamde, gasdevs mis wyal-gamyofs Crdilo-dasavleTis mimarTulebiT, gadadis bazumis qedze, modis javaxeTis qedis samxreTul daboloebamde da aqedan Cildiris tbas uvlis samxreTidan, miuyveba yarsis qeds, gadadis md. Woroxisa da md. araqsis wyalgamyof Txemze, gadakveTs md. Woroxs da adis pontos qedze, mTa rkinis palos gavliT, sazRvris xazi midis Crdilo-dasavleTisaken da eSveba Sav zRvaze sof. qelalisTan.

aqedan, Savi zRvis sanapiros gayolebiT nikofses midamoebamde sazRvris xazi adis kavkasionis Txemze, gadis ialbuzTan, midis myinvarwverze; aqedan eSveba aragvis xeobaSi da md. qisturas mxridan kvlav kavkasionis qediT gadadis TuSeTis qedze. ukanasknelis aRmosavleTuri daboloebebidan eSveba samxreTiT da kaxeTis kavkasionis wyalgamyofi qediT midis aRmosavleTiT md. giSiswylis saTaveebamde, mTa bocailaxanze...~[22].

 

farnavazis epoqa

erTiani qarTulis saxelmwifos warmoSoba, Zveli qarTuli saistorio tradiciiT, Zv.w. IV-III s-Ta mijnaze azo-farnavazis moRvaweobas ukavSirdeba. sanam uSualod farnavazis mier ganxor-cielebul administraciul reformas SevexebodeT, modiT mok-led mimovixiloT _ erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos warmoSobisa da masTan dakavSirebuli sakiTxebi.

aRniSnul periodze saubrisas pirvelwyaros warmoadgens `moqcevÁ qarTlisaÁ~ da `qarTlis cxovreba~, sadac qarTuli saxelmwifos daarsebisa da misi damaarseblis Taobaze, erTmaneTisagan odnav gansxvavebuli informaciebia daculi.

`moqcevaÁ qarTlisaÁs~ pirveli nawilis e. w. `qronikebis~ mixedviT erTiani qarTuli saxelmwifos Camoyalibeba arian-qarTlidan mosul azos ukavSirdeba, romelic aleqsandre makedonels dauniSnavs, qarTlSi laSqrobisa da am teritoriis `bun-Turqebisa~ da hunebisagan ganwmendis Semdeg _ `...pirvel, odes aleqsandre mefeman naTesavni igi loTis SvilTani wariqcina da SeÃadna igini kedarsa mas queyanasa, ixilna naTesavni sastikni bun-Turqni, _ msxdomni mdinaresa zeda mtkuarsa, mixueviT, oTx qalaqad, da cixeni maTni: sarkine qalaqi, kaspi, urbnisi da oZraÃe, da cixeni maTni: cixÀ didi sarkinisaÁ, ufliscixÀ kaspisa, urbnisisa da oZraÃisaÁ... da Semdgomad raodenimesa Jamisa movida aleqsandre, mefÀ yovlisa queyanisaÁ, da dalewna samni ese qalaqni da cixeni, da honTa dasca maxÂli. xolo sarkinesa qalaqsa ebrZoda aTerTmet TTuÀ da dadga sarkinesa dasavaliT kerZo... da Tana-hyvanda aleqsandres azoÁ, ZÀ arian qarTlisa mefisaÁ, da mas miuboZa mcxeTaÁ sajdomad da sazRvari daudva mas hereTi da egris wyali da somxiTi da mTaÁ crolisaÁ da warvida...~[23].

qarTlSi gamefebuli azo, Tavis samefodan _ arian-qarTlidan mosaxleobis raRac nawils gadmoasaxlebs _ `...xolo ese azoÁ warvida arian qarTlad, mamisa TÂsisa, da warmoiyvana rvaÁ saxli da aTni saxlni mama-mZuZeTani, da dajda Zuel mcxeTas...~[24].

aRniSnulisagan gansxvavebiT, `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ Semavali Txzuleba `cxovreba qarTvelTa mefeTasa da pirvelTaganTa mamaTa da naTesavTa~-s avtori leonti mroveli, qarTlis pirvel mefed da pirveli qarTuli samefo dinastiis damaarseblad _ farnavazs asaxelebs.

farnavazs _ qarTuli samefo dinastiis damaarseblad Tvlis Zveli somxuri saistorio tradiciac, sadac qarTlis samefo sagvareulo da misi wevrebi _ `farnavazianebad~ moixseniebian[25].

leonti mrovelis mixedviT azo dampyrobelia, romelic _ `...imorCilebs qarTlTan erTad hereTs da amrigad avrcelebs Tavis xelisuflebas md. bedrujidan (dRev. debeda) vidre `speris zRvamde~ (e. i. Savi zRva), ipyrobs agreTve dasavleT saqarTvelos (egriss), xarks adebs osebs, lekebsa da xazarebs...~[26].

leontis cnobiT, mcxeTis mamasaxlisis samaras Zmiswuli sami wlisa yofila, roca aleqsandres daupyria qarTli, mouklavs samara da mmarTvelad makedoneli azo dautovebia. farnavazi da dedamisi kavkasiis mTebSi gaxiznulan[27].Mmisive cnobiT, rodesac farnavazi wamoizrdeba, nadirobisas ganZs ipovis, ris Semdegac ukavSirdeba egrisis marTvel qujiss da erTiani ZalebiT iwyeben azos winaaRmdeg brZolas, romelic farnavazis gamarjvebiT mTavrdeba[28].

qarTul saistorio mwerlobaSi farnavazis mefobis konkre-tuli wlebi, samwuxarod, Riad dafiqsirebuli araa. Tumca, misi biografiis aRwerisas, qarTul wyaroebSi, ramdenime konkretuli miniSneba mainc fiqsirdeba, romelTa saTanado gaanalizebis SemTxvevaSi, Sesabamisi daskvnis gamotanac SeiZleba.

leonti mroveli farnavazTan mimarTebaSi _ `...sam droiT miniSnebas iZleva: 1) farnavazi sami wlisa yofila, roca aleq-sandres qarTlis samefo daupyria; 2) farnavazi taxtze asula 27 wlisa da 3) umefia 65 weli. am, da sxva miniSnebaTa gaTvalis-winebiT vaskvniT, rom _ farnavazi: dabadebula Zv. w. 336-335 wlebs Soris; taxtze asula 309-308 wels da umefia 244/243 wlamde...~[29].

farnavazi gamefebisTanave iwyebs reformaTa grZel cikls, romlis saboloo mizansac qveynis ganmtkiceba-gaZliereba warmoadgens.

farnavazma ganaxorciela religiuri reformac, rac gamoi-xateboda axali mTavari xvTaebis `armazis~ SeqmnaSi. masve miewereba qarTuli enisa da damwerlobis sakiTxis mogvareba _ `...da ese farnavaz iyo pirveli mefe qarTlsa Sina qarTlosisa naTesavTagani. aman ganavrco ena qarTuli, da arRara izraxeboda sxua ena qarTlsa Sina TÂnier qarTulisa. da aman Seqmna mwignobroba qarTuli...~[30].

da bolos, farnavazs miewereba qarTul saxelmwifoSi pirveli administraciuli reformis Catareba. sanam uSualod administraciul dayofaze gadavalT, mokled SevexoT leonti mrovelis TxzulebaSi dafiqsirebul informacias, romlis Tanaxmadac _ `...esreT ganawesa ese yoveli farnavaz mimsgavse-bulad samefosa sparsTasa...~[31].

aRniSnuli monakveTis komentarisas g. meliqiSvili brZanebs _ `...moawyo man samefo `sparsTa samefos msgavsad~, dayo igi calke olqebad _ saerisTaoebad, romelTa saTaveSic daayena erisTavebi, xolo centraluri olqis (Sida qarTlis) mmarTveloba spaspets _ mTavarsardals miando, gaamagra qalaqi mcxeTa da qarTlis sxva qalaqebi da cixeebi...~[32].

farnavazis mier Catarebuli administarciuli reformis Semdeg qveyana daiyo 8 saerisTaod da 1 sasaspetod. `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ detaluradaa gadmocemuli TiToeuli saerisTaos sazRvrebi, riTac ara marto konkretuli saerisTaos, aramed mTeli imdroindeli saqarTvelos sazRvrebic naTlad ikiTxeba.

`qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ vkiTxulobT _ `...maSin farnavaz uSiS iqmna yovelTa mterTa TvisTagan da mefe iqmna yovlisa qarTlisa da egrisa zeda. da ganamravlna yovelni mxedarni qarTlosianni, ganawesa erisTavi rvani da spaspet.

erTi gagzavna margÂs erisTavad, da misca mciriT mTiTgan, romel ars lixi, vidre zRuradmde egrisisa, rions zemoT. da amanve farnavazs aRaSenna orni cixeni, Sorapani da dimna.

da gagzavna meore kaxeTiT erisTavad, misca aragÂTan vidre hereTamde, romel ars kaxeTi da kuxeTi.

mesame gagzavna xunanisa erisTavad, misca bedrujis mdinariTgan vidre tfilisamde da gaCianTamdis, romel ars gardabani.

meoTxe gagzavna samSÂildisa erisTavad, da misca skÂreTisa mdinariTgan vidre mTamde, romel ars taSiri da aboci.

mexuTe gagzavna wundis erisTavad, da misca fanvariTgan vidre Tavadmde mtkvrisa, romel ars javaxeTi da kola da artani.

meequse gagzavna oZrÃis erisTavad, da misca taSiskaridan vidre arsiantamdis, nostis TaviTgan zRuamdis, romel ars samcxe da aWara.

meSÂde gagzavna klarjeTis erisTavad, da misca arsianiTgan zRuamde. da merve, quji, iyo erisTavi egrisisa.

xolo erTi daadgina spaspetad da misca tfilisiTgan da aragÂTgan vidre taSiskaramde da fanvaradmde, romel ars Sida-qarTli. da ese spaspeti iyo Semdgomadve winaSe mefisa, mTavrobiT ganagebdis yovelTa erisTavTa zeda...~[33].

 

vaxtang gorgaslis epoqa

farnavazis droindeli administraciuli reformis Sedegad Camoyalibebuli qveynis politikuri ruka, rogorc Cans ax. w. I-IV s-Sic ucvlelia. _ `...qarTlis samefo dayofili iyo 8-9 saerisTaod, romlis saTaveSi idgnen erisTavebi, zogi cnobiT pitiaxSni... IV s-Si `pitiaxSi~ ewoda qarTlSi dasmul iranis Sahis nacvals, im droisaTvis Cveulebrivi `erisTavi~ (somx. `naxarar~) pitiaxSze dabla dgas...~[34].

qarTlis samefos administraciul-politikuri ruka I-IV saukuneebSi Semdegnairad gamoiyureba: 1) Sida qarTli, centriT _ ufliscixe; 2) margvi, centriT _ sarapanisi; 3) kaxeT-kuxeTi, centriT –ujarma; 4) gardabani, romelic moicavda teritorias debedadan _ gaCianamde; 5) taSiri da aboci, centriT _ samSvilde; 6) javaxeTi, kola, artaani centriT _ wunda; 7) sam-cxe da aWara, centriT _ oZrxe; 8) klarjeTi centriT _ artanuji da 9) egrisi, centriT _ cixegoji[35].

qarTlis samefoSi morigi cvlileba, romelic administra-ciul sferoSi ganxorcielda, vaxtang gorgaslis saxels ukavSirdeba.

ax. w. III s-Si qarTlis samefos samxreTiT mniSvnelovani cvli-lebebi moxda _ `...iranSi Zalaufleba xelT igdo sasanidebis dinastiam, romelmac mniSvnelovnad ganamtkica qveynis socialuri da politikuri organizacia...~[36].

Tavdapirvelad iransa da saqarTvelos Soris sakmaod kargi urTierToba arsebobda. Sabur I (242-272 w.w.) CamoTvlis ra mis samefoSi Semaval didebulebs  _ `...maT sam kategoriad hyofs:    1.isini vinc Zalaufleba miiRo sasanianTa dinastiis fuZemdeblis ardaSir I-is mamis _ papakis dros, 2. vinc Zalaufleba miiRo ardaSir I-is dros da 3. isini, vinc Zalaufleba miiRo Sabur I-is dros. swored am ukanasknelTa Soris ixsenieba `amazaspi, mefe iberiisa~... mas sasanianTa karis ierarqiaSi maRali adgili ukavia. imperiis im didmoxeleTa CamoTvlisas, romelTac Zalaufleba mis dros miiRes, Sabur I iberiis mefe amazasps asaxelebs... amazaspis Semdeg aq dasaxelebuli arian ufliswulebi, sasanianTa saxelmwifos gavleniani sagvareuloebis _ surenebisa da karenebis warmomadgenlebi, pitiaxSebi da xazarapetebi, satrapebi da samefos sxva didmoxeleebi. yvela maTTvis, maT Soris iberiis mefe amazaspisaTvis, Saburi garkveuli msxverplis Sewirvas awesebs. yvelaferi es, vfiqrobT, imaze miuTiTebs, rom amazaspis saxiT saqme gvaqvs ara iaraRis ZaliT damorCilebul mmarTvelTan, aramed iranis mbrZaneblis erT-erT yvelaze ufro gavlenian mokavSiresTan...~[37].

qarTlisa da iranis samefoebs Soris arsebuli damokide-buleba IV s-is I naxevridan icvleba. Sabur II-is (310-379 w.w.) mefobis periodSi Zlierdeba sasaniduri iranis Semotevebi. qarTlis samefo, romis imperiis daxmarebiT, cdilobs iranis winaaRmdeg brZolas. amis erT-erT gamoxatulebad IV s-is 20-ian wlebSi qarTlSi qristianobis saxelmwifo religiad gamocxadebac SeiZleba CaiTvalos[38].

iraneTa Semotevebi IV s-is II naxevridan kidev ufro Zlierdeba, ris Sedegadac _ `...IV s-is 70-ian wlebSi iranelebma qarTlis samefo mTlianad daimorCiles...~[39].

V s-is 40-iani wlebi axali etapis dasawyisia iranisa da amierkavkasiis qveynebis urTierTobaSi _ `...am droidan iranma daiwyo axali, metad aqtiuri da agresiuli politikis gatareba aRniSnuli qveynebis mimarT. amjerad iranelTa mizani iyo savsebiT moespoT is Sinagani damoukidebloba, romelic SerCenoda maT qveSevrdom amierkavkasiis qveynebs da gadaeqciaT isini iranis rigiT provinciebad...~[40]. swored am periodidan iwyeba amierkavkasiaze samxedro begaris amoqmedeba _ `...V s. ormociani wlebis dasawyisSi Sahma iezdigerd II-m (438-457) Tavis qveSevrdom qveynebs, maT Soris qarTlsac, brZaneba daugzavna, cxenosani jari SeekribaT Sua aziaSi wasasvlelad...~[41].

V s-is 20-iani wlebidan iranelebma Seuties qristianul eklesiasac da cecxlTayvanismcemlobis gavrceleba daiwyes, rasac 450-451 wlebSi somxeTsa da albaneTSi didi ajanyeba mohyolia.

aseT viTarebaSi, V s-is II naxevarSi qarTlis samefo taxts vaxtang I gorgasali ikavebs. taxtze asvlis momentSi vaxtangi 7 wlisa yofila. srulwlovnad gaxdomis Semdeg ki iranis jarSi gauwveviaT salaSqrod. _ `...vaxtangis sparseTidan dabruneba SeiZleba daidos 60-iani wlebis bolosTvis... swored am droidan iwyeba vaxtangis ZiriTadi saqmianoba, romlis mTavari xazebi iyo brZola saxelmwifos centralizaciisa da qveynis damoukideblo-bisaTvis...~[42].

rogorc ukve zemoT aRvniSneT, vaxtang gorgaslis saqmianobaTa Soris Tavisi gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia qveynis administraciul reformas.

rogorc wyaroebidan Cans, vaxtang gorgaslis mier Catarebuli administraciuli reforma qveynis tradiciul dayofas imeorebda, im gansxvavebiT, rom vaxtangis dros qarTlis samefoSi kidev erTi saerisTao Cndeba _ hereTis saxiT.

vaxtang gorgaslis droindeli saqarTvelo 9 saerisTaod da 1 sasapetod iyo dayofili.

juanSeris TxzulebaSi _ `cxovrebaÁ vaxtang gorgaslisa~, vkiTxulobT: _ `...pirvelad, juanSer spaspeti, mpyrobeli qarTlisaÁ da mflobeli yovelTa erisTavTa, da demetre, erisTavi kaxeTisaÁ da kuxeTisaÁ, da grigol, erisTavi hereTisaÁ, da nesran, erisTavi xunaniaÁ, da adarnase, erisTavi samSÂldisaÁ, da samnaRir, erisTavi Sidaegrisisa da suaneTisaÁ, da bakur, erisTavi margÂsa da TakuerisaÁ... artavaz, erisTavi klarjeTisaÁ, da nasra, erisTavi wundisaÁ, da bivritian, erisTavi oZrÃisaÁ...~[43].

maSasadame, zemoTqmulis Sedegad cxadi xdeba, rom vaxtang gorgaslis dros istoriuli saqarTvelos udidesi nawili kvlav erTi xelisuflebis qveS gaerTianda.

 

arCil mefis reforma

qarTlis samefoSi morigi `administraciuli reforma~, `qarTlis cxovrebis~ mixedviT, VIII s-Si moRvawe rigiT 44-e mefes arCils miewereba. Tumca sanam uSualod arCil mefis mier ganxorcielebul `reformaze~ visaubrebdeT, manamde, oriode sityviT mimovixiloT imdroindeli politikuri situacia.

VII s-is I mesamedSi arabeTis n.k.-ze safuZveli Caeyara arabul saxelmwifos, romlis meTauric iyo muhamedi. masve ukavSirdeba arabeTSi axali sarwmunoebis gavrceleba, romelsac `islami~ (rac `mindobils~ niSnavs) ewodeba.

_ `...muhamedis `moadgileebis~, anu xalifebis dros arabebis saxelmwifo, anu xalifati (igive saxalifo), rogorc mas eZaxian, araCveulebrivad swrafad gaizarda. pirveli didi dapyrobiTi omebi arabebma xalifa omaris dros (634-644 ww.) gadaixades... 654w. arabebma somxeTSi sastikad daamarcxes bizantielebis sardali mavrianosi, romelmac Tavs qarTlSi gaqceviT uSvela. arabebi gaqceul mters kvaldakval daedevnen da qarTlis sazRvrebSi Semovidnen. qarTlis erismTavarma, romelic patrikiosis tituls atarebda, arabebs saCuqrebiT Tavisi elCi miageba da maTgan zavi da mSvidoba iTxova... arabTa sardali habib ibn-maslama kmayo-fili darCa erismTavris am saqcieliT... da piradad daumtkica mosaxleobas zavisa da Seuvalobis is cnobili dokumenti, romelic `dacvis sigelis~ saxeliTaa cnobili...~[44].

male saxalifo Sida dapirispirebam moicva, riTac usargeb-liaT qarTvelebs, somxebsa da albanelebs da arabebisaTvis xarkis micema SeuwyvetiaT. Tumca VII s-is bolosaTvis arabebi ukve mtkiced moikideben fexs qarTlSi. amas isic emateba, rom 697 w. egrisis patrikiozi serge barnukis Ze bizantielebs aujanydeba da Tavis samefos arabebs gadascems[45].

arabTa batonoba kidev ufro damZimda VIII s-is 20-ian wlebSi, roca qarTlis samefoSi 724 wels SemoiWra arabi sardali jarah ibn-abd-al-lahi, romelsac ganuaxlebia `dacvis sigeli~, riTac xarki kidev ufro damZimda, rasac mosaxleoba ajanyebiT Sexved-ria. amave periodSi, arabebs urTierToba daeZabaT xazarebTan. amis Sedegi iyo is, rom xalifa hiSamis (724-744 w.w.) biZaSvili murvan ibn-muhamedi 735 wels, 120 000 armiiT, saqarTveloSi SemoiWreba.

_ `...da movlo yruman yoveli kavkasiaÁ da daipyra kari darialanisaÁ da Semusrna yovelni qalaqni da umravlesni cixeni yovelTa sazRvarTa qarTlisaTa...~[46]. amis Semdeg, murvan-yru dasavleT saqarTveloSi gadadis da egrisis dedaqalaq cixegojs aiRebs. bolos murvan-yru anakofiis cixes miadgeba, sadac qarTlis erismTavrebi miri da misi Zma arCili da afxazeTis erisTavi leoni iyvnen gamagrebulni. murvan-yrum anakofiis cixe ver aiRo da ukan gamobrunda.

737 w. murvan-yru darialisa da darubandis gzebiT xazareTi-saken gaemarTa. sabolood murvan-yrum kavkasia 744 wels datova da saxalifoSi dabrunda, sadac ukanaskneli omeadebis dinastiis xalifa gaxdeba.

aseT mZime mdgomareobaSia qarTlis samefo, rodesac gardaicvleba qarTlis mefe (wyaroTa erTi nawilis mixedviT erismTavari) miri da qarTlis mmarTvelad mis Zmas arCils tovebs, xolo anderZad, qaliSvilTa adgilobriv erisTavebze daqorwinebas da TiToeulisaTvis sakuTari sagamgebos gamoyofas utovebs.

swored am ambebis aRwerisas vgebulobT, Tu rogori iyo qarTlis samefos politikur-administraciuli ruka mowyobili. `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ vkiTxulobT _ `...aw Sen xar mkÂdri saxlisagan mefobisa Cvenisa mirian mefisaÁsa... Sen xar ucolo, da me var uZeo. aw, raÁTgan moiyvannian mamaTa CuenTa colni da asulni erisTavTa CuenTani, miscen maT asulni Cemni da ganuyvnen maT queyanani qarTlisani, naxevari _ Sen da naxevari _ maT. xolo sauxucesod romeli maqunda, momicemia Senda da gaqundes sauxucesod egrisi, suaneTi, Takueri, argueTi da guriaÁ, xolo klarjeTi da SuamTiuleTi miec asulTa CemTa...~[47].

Zmis gardacvalebis Semdeg, arCilma _ `...mouwoda erisTavTa qarTlisaTa da miscna Zmiswulni misni: erTi misca mamis-Zmiswulsa missa, Svilsa guaram kurapalatisasa, romelsa hqonda klarjeTi da javaxeTi; da meore misca patiaxSsa, naTesavsa ferozissa, romeli mTavrobda TrialeTs, taSirs da abocs; mesame misca nerses nersiansa, romeli-igi iyo warCinebuli vaxtang mefisaÁ; meoTxe misca adarnases adarnasiansa, da orTa amaT ganuyo zenasofeli, romel ars qarTli; mexuTe misca varazmans da misca kotmaniTgan qurdisÃevamde (iyo ese varazman naTesavi sparsTa erisTvisa bardavelisaÁ, romeli iyo dedisZmaÁ vaxtang mefisaÁ), meequse misca juanSers juanSeriansa, romeli-igi iyo naTesavi mirian mefisaÁ SvilTagan revisTa, da misca juari da xerki da yoveli mTiuleTi, manglisisÃevi da tfilisi... da ganutevna mTavarni ese colebiTurT TÂs-TÂsad adgilad...~[48].

 

VIII saukune

VIII - IX saukuneTa mijnaze saqarTvelos teritoriaze ramde-nime samefo warmoiqmna. _ `...calkeuli, erTmaneTisagan damouki-debeli samefo-samTavroebis warmoqmna saqarTvelos miwa-wyalze VIII-IX saukuneTa mijnaze ganpirobebuli iyo rogorc natura-luri meurneobis batonobiT, ise arabTa mflobelobis xasiaTiT. arabebi xels uSlidnen da abrkolebdnen Zlieri adgilobrivi xelisuflebis Seqmnas... aseT viTarebaSi arabTa winaaRmdeg brZolis gaaqtiureba periferiebze iwyeba, rasac sazogadoebriv da sameurneo aRmavlobasTan erTad xels uwyobs TviT saxali-fos dacemisa da daSlis procesis dasawyisi, rac saxalifos saSinao ganviTarebidan gamomdinareobs...~[49]. amis asaxva unda iyos `qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ daculi cnoba _ `...iqmna simravle mTavar-Ta queyanasa qarTlisasa da Seeria brZola, iqmnes mter urTier-Tas da `ukeTu vinme gamoCndis SvilTa Soris vaxtangisTa, rome-limca Rirs iyo mefed, iqmnis  Semcirebul sarkinozTagan...~ [50].

Cveni Temis miznidan gamomdinare, vnaxoT, Tu rogori iyo saqarTvelos teritoriaze warmoqmnili kaxeTis, hereTis, egris-afxazeTis, tao-klarjeTis samefoebisa da Tbilisis saamiros administraciul-politikuri ruka.

 

kaxeTis samefo

kaxeTis samefo aerTianebda 3 istoriul Tems: kaxeTs, kuxeTsa da gardabans.

kaxeTis samefos, samxreT-aRmosavleTidan, hereTi esazRv-reboda da maT Soris sazRvari daxloebiT xunanis samxreTidan iwyeboda da Turdo-Stori-samebis xevebs miuyveboda[51]; dasavle-Tidan ki kaxeTis samefos md. aragvi da Tbilisis saamiro esazRvreboda.

kaxeTis samefo, administraciuli TvalsazrisiT, saerisTao-ebad iyofoda. rogorc vaxuSti bagrationis cnobebidan irkveva, kaxeTis samefo 3 saerisTaod iyofoda. vaxuStisave cnobiT aRniSnuli administraciuli sistema kvirike didis (1010-1037 w.w.) reformis Sedegia, magram _ `...SeiZleba vivaraudoT, rom kvirikes es RonisZieba arsebuli tradiciiT iyo nakarnaxevi da misi drois saerisTaoebi, ZiriTadad, Zvelidanve arsebuli saeris-Tavoebis farglebSi Tavsdeboda. saxeldobr: kaxeTSi kvirikem erTi erisTavi dasva `rusTavs da misca sruliad kuxeTi~. meore erisTavi `dasva kveterisa da misca ujarmas zemoTi orTa mTaTa Soris, romel arian kaxeTisa da kuxeTisa, vidre kavkasamde da gardaRmad. ese ars erwo-TianeTi, fxovelni, ZurZuki da RliRvi. mesame pankisisa anu marilisisa da misca hereTis sazRuriszeiTi kavkasiamde da kaxeTis mTamde TuSeTiTurT~...~[52].

Tavdapirvelad kaxeTis dedaqalaqi ujarmaSi unda yofiliyo[53], Semdgom ki misma centrma TianeTSi gadainacvla, rac savaraudod kvirike III-is mier hereTis SemoerTebisa da sazRvris aRmosavleTiT gadawevas unda ukavSirdebodes _ `...xolo gulgulas qveiT, Turdos-Ãevis samÃriT, ars Telavi, romeli hyo kvirikem, pirvel gamefebulman kaxeTs da ÀereTs, sasaxle didi, viTarca qalaqi...~[54].

 

hereTi

qarTuli saistorio tradicia hereTs Semdegnairad SemosazRvravs _ `...xolo heross misca mtkuarisa CrdiloT, mcirisa alaznisa SesarTaviTgan vidre tyetbamde, romelsa aw hqÂan gulgula. da aman heros aRaSena pirvelad qalaqi SesakrebelTa Soris orTave alazanTasa da uwoda saxeli TÂsi hereTi; da mis gamo hqÂan hereTsa hereTi, da aw mas adgilsa hqÂan xoranTa...~[55].

_ `...amgvarad, am samTavros sazRvravs samxreT-dasavleTidan mtkvari, Crdilo-aRmosavleTidan kavkasioni. ukiduresi samxreTi punqtia ior-alaznis Sesakrebeli, xolo ukiduresi CrdiloeTi _ Telavi...~[56].  vaxuSti ki kaxeTsa da hereTs Soris sazRvars Semdegnairad gadmogvcems _ `...samÃriT sazRuari hereTisa Turdo-Storis-Ãevi vidre kavkasamde...~[57].

administraciuli TvalsazrisiT hereTi 4 saerisTaodaa dayofili. amaze miuTiTebs vaxuSti batoniSvili. is asexelebs 4 erisTavs _ Storis, xornabujis, vejinisa da maWis erisTavebs. Tavis -~ unda hqondes aRebuli, sadac im ambebis aRwerisas, roca bagrat IV-m kaxeTs gailaSqra, weria: _ `...Seipyrna: stefanos varjanisZe, pankisis erisTavi, da vaCe gurgen berisa, xornabujis erisTavi; da jedi; diswuli goderZisa, Storis erisTavi da maWelisa....~[58]. xolo im adgilze, sadac alf-arslanis saqarTveloSi laSqrobazea saubari mematiane ixseniebs vejinis saerisTaos[59].

Tumca, rogorc Cans, hereTSi kidev unda yofiliyo sxva saerisTaoebi, magaliTad _ giSisa da ariSis [60].

hereTis politikuri centri q. SaqSi mdebareobda.

 

egris-afxazeTi

VIII s-is dasawyisidan nel-nela Zlierdeba afxazeTis saerisTao. misi mTavari leon I VIII s-is 40-ian wlebisaTvis xelmZRvanelobs antiarabul moZraobas dasavleT saqarTveloSi _ `...VIII saukunis 80-ian wlebisaTvis leon I-is memkvidre, leon II aerTianebs mTel dasavleT saqarTvelos (egris-afxazeTs), xolo saukunis dasasrulisaTvis Tavisufldeba bizantielTa vasalo-bisgan da iRebs `mefis~ tituls [61].

Tavis mxriv, egris-afxazeTis teritoria, moicavda mTel dasavleT saqarTvelos. misi dasavleT sazRvari Savi zRvaa, CrdiloeTiT _ samxreT jiqeTi nikofsiiTurT mis Semadgenloba-Sia, xolo aRmosavleTiT lixis qedamde da samxreTiT _ md. Woroxis xeobamde vrceldeboda [62].

egris-afxazeTis samefo saerisTaoebad iyo dayofili. leon II-m egris-afxazeTis samefo 8 saerisTaod dayo:

1) afxazeTis, 2) cxomis (igive cxumis), 3) egrisis (centriT –bediaSi), 4) guriis, 5) raWa-leCxumis, 6) svaneTis, 7) argveTis (centriT _ Sorapani) da 8) vake-imereTi (centriT _ quTaisi).

egris-afxazeTis dedaqalaqi q. quTaisSi mdebareobda.

 

tao-klarjeTis samefo

IX s-is dasawyisSi samxreT saqarTvelos teritoriaze yalibdeba samefo, romlis fuZemdebladac arabebisagan devnili, qarTlis erismTavari aSot bagrationi miiCneva. _ `...samxreT-saqarTvelos teritoriaze Camoyalibebuli adrefeodaluri politikuri erTeuli qarTul istoriografiaSi cnobilia tao-klarjeTis samTavros an `qarTvelTa samefos~ saxelwode-biT...~ [63].

rogorc qarTveli mematiane aRniSnavs, qarTlidan devnili aSot bagrationi SavSeT-klarjeTSi mkvidrdeba da Tavis rezi-denciad artanujs gamoacxadebs _ `...hpova klarjeTis tyeTa Sina klde erTi, romelic pirvel vaxtang gorgasals cixed aReSena, saxeliT artanuji; da aoÃrebul iyo baRdadelisa mis yruobiT-gan. igi ganaaxla aSot da aRaSena cixed, da wina-kerZo missa, queSeT aRaSena qalaqi. da aRaSena cixesa mas Sina eklesia wmi-daTa mociqulTa petresi da pavlesi, da Seqmna mas Sina saflavi TÂsi, da daemkvidra cixesa mas Sina cxovrebad...~ [64].

aqedan dauwyia aSots Tavisi qveynis Seqmna-gafarToeba. ro-gorc `matiane qarTlisaidan~ Cans aSotis dros, mis mier, daar-sebuli samefo moicavda: SavSeTs, klarjeTs, nigals, aWaras, taos, spers, samcxes, javaxeTs, artaans[65]. masve gaufarToebia sazRvrebi _ `...klarjeTiTgan vidre qsnamde...~ [66].

aSotis sikvdilis Semdeg _ `...xelisufleba TandaTan nawildeba mis memkvidreebs Soris da Seiqmna tao-klarjeTis bagrationTa saxlis ori mmarTveli Sto: taosi da klarjeTisa. taos Stoc, Tavis mxriv, orad iyofoda. taos StoSi IX s-is dasasrulidan mkvidrdeba (adarnase II) `qarTvelTa mefoba~...~ [67].

IX s-is dasasrulidan aSkarad Cans, rom samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebobs ori: taosi _ centriT bana da klarjeTisa _ centriT artanuji. amasTanave_ `...ufrosoba taos Stos aqvs da nominaluradac taos saxli iTvleba ufrosad, Tumca, faqtobrivad klarjeTis Sto sruli damoukideblobiT sargeblobs...~ [68].

am nominalurobis dasturia, agreTve bagrationTa  saxlSi `mamfalis~ institutis arseboba. pirveli `mamfali~, qarTuli wyaroebis mixedviT aSot bagrationis umcrosi vaJi gvaramia _ `...gvaramis mflobelobaSi imyofeboda javaxeTi, TrialeTi, taSiri, aboci da artaani...~ [69].

Tavis mxriv, rodesac gvaramis Sto amowyda, `mamflis~ tituli aSotis ufrosi Svilis adarnases STamomavlobaSi, klarjeTis saxlSi damkvidrdeba. amasTanave - `...gvaram mamflis mamuli misma mowinaaRmdegeebma gainawiles. adarnases Zes, gurgens artaani miuRia, aboci da taSiri, albaT, somexTa mefes unda rgeboda, javaxeT-TrialeTi, etyoba, aSotis ufrosi Stos warmomadgen-lebma miitaces, xolo X s-is 60-iani wlebSi, rogorc cnobilia, javaxeTi egris-afxazeTis mefesa aqvs dapyrobili...~ [70].

X s-is II naxevrisaTvis tao oradaa gayofili. amiertao _ bagrat qarTvelTa mefes ekuTvnis, xolo imiertao _ Crdilo basianiTurT, TorTomi da speri X s-is 60-iani wlebidan daviT III didis samflobeloebs Seadgenda. swored daviT III-is saxels ukavSirdeba taos gansakuTrebuli gaZliereba.

daviTis siZlieresa da misi samefos gavlenaze uTiTebs 976-979 wlebSi bizantiaSi mimdinare barda skliarosis ajanyebisas, saimperatoro karis mier daviT III-Tvis daxmarebis Txovnis faqti. _ `...daviTma barda skliarosis winaaRmdeg brZolaSi daxmare-bisaTvis imperias garkveuli moTxovnebi wauyena. bizantiis imperiam aRuTqva daviTs, garkveuli teritoriuli daTmobani, kerZoT `zemoni qveyanani~.

`zemoni qveyanani~ moicavda arzrumis anu karinis olqs, samxreT basians, Cormairis Tems md. Woroxis saTaveebTan, cixe sevuks mdinare araqsis saTaveebTan, haqsisa da apahunis provinciebs aRmosavleT evfratis zemo xeobaSi... `zemoni qveyanani~ marTlac mnivnelovani SenaZeni iyo taos samefosaTvis, magram es mxareni, xelSekrulebis Tanaxmad, daviTs mxolod mis sicocxleSi eZleoda...~ [71]. daviT III-is sikvdilis Semdeg (1001 w.) es teritoria bizantiam kvlav TviTonve daikava.

 

Tbilisis saamiro

VIII s-is 30-ian wlebSi kavkasiaSi murvan-yrus laSqrobis droidan, kerZod 735-744 wlebSi, safuZveli Caeyreba Tbilisis saamiros.

xalifa abdamaliqis (685-707 w.w.) gamgeblobisas warmoiqmna arabTa imperiis teritoriul-administraciuli erTeuli - `samxreT kavkasia~, romelic warmoadgenda saxalifos erT did olqs _ `armenias~, romelsac xalifas nacvali _ `vali~ ganagebda _ `valis rezidencia 789 wlamde iyo q. dvini, xolo Semdeg _ q. bardavaSi. `armenia~ iyofoda 4 mxared, romlebsac ganagebdnen amirebi: 1) albaneTi da sivnieTi (centri  q. bardavi), 2) qarTli _ `jurzani~ (centri q. Tbilisi), 3) airarati da vaspurakani (centri q. dvini), 4) rSuniqis da teruberanis mxare (centri q. vani)...~ [72].

aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom Tbilisis amiras uSualod xalifa niSnavda, Tumca gvaqvs SemTxvevebi, rodesac amiras Tavad armeniis vali niSnavda [73].

Tbilisis saamiro Tavdapirvelad mTel aRmosavleT saqar-Tvelos aerTianebda, magram _ `...VIII - IX saukuneTa mijnidan, CvenSi damoukidebeli samTavroebis SeqmnasTan erTad, saamiros teritoria TandaTan izRudeboda. yvelaze mtkiced amirebi qvemo qarTlSi iyvnen Camdgarni da SedarebiT didxans SeinarCunes Sida qarTli... IX-XI saukuneebSi Tbilisis saamiros Crdilo sazRvari diRmis xevamde (CaTvliT) vrceldeboda. samxreTiT Tbilisis amiras ekuTvnoda cixeebi: birTvisi, orbeTi da farcxisi... dasavleTiT saamiros TrialeTi esazRvreboda... aRmosavleTi sazRvari ZiriTadad mtkvarze gadioda, Tumca, Cans, mtkvris aRmosavleT napirze Tbiliss ekuTvnda isnis veli, avWala da aqedan dawyebuli mtkvris piri `CaRmarT~, mdinaris dinebis CayolebiT TviT ivris piramdec ki...~ [74].

 

XI - XIII saukuneebi

X-XI s.s. saqarTvelos istoriis erT-erTi yvelaze mniSvnelovani periodia. bagrat III-is (975/978 – 1014 w.w.) gamefebiT iwyeba saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebuli calkeuli politikuri erTeulebis gaerTianeba _ `...bagrat III-is mefobis bolo wlebisaTvis erT samefodaa gaerTianebuli dasavleT saqarTvelo, Sida qarTli, kaxeT-hereTi, TrialeTi da yofili qarTvelTa sakurapalato basianamde. gaerTianebis gareSea darCenili mxolod Tbilisi da misi midamoebi...~ [75].

saqarTvelos saboloo gaerTianeba ki daviT IV aRmaSeneblis moRvaweobas ukavSirdeba _ `...1122 wels daviTma aiRo Tbilisi da amiT saqarTvelos gaerTianeba damTavrda...~ [76].

rogorc istoriografidanaa cnobili, 1120 wels daviT aRmaSenebelma q. yabala da misi daqvemdebarebaSi myofi mTeli teritoria SemoierTa. Sesabamisad, yabala _ `...saqarTvelos saxelmwifos aRmosavleTi sazRvari iyo XII, XIII, XIV saukuneebSi...~[77].

rac Seexeba saqarTvelos samxreTiT mdebare Crd. somxeTis or did qalaqs _ anissa da dvins, maTi saqarTvelos farglebSi sabolood SemoerTeba, Tamar mefis periods ukavSirdeba.

Tamaris droindeli samefos samxreT sazRvrebTan dakavSi-rebiT saintereso cnoba aqvs moyvanili basili ezosmoZRvars, romelic Txrobisas brZanebs _ `...maT yovelTgan, romelni aixuna zorakertiT raxsamdis, gagiT ganZamdis da javaxeTiT speram-dis...~ [78].

Tavis mxriv _ `...zorakerti, gagi da javaxeTi XII s-is saqarTvelos sazRvrispira zolia, xolo raxsi, ganZa da speri is mijnaa, rasac miaRwia saqarTvelom Tavisi Zlierebis kulmina-ciur periodSi...~ [79].

maSasadame saqarTvelos istoriuli samxreT sazRvari `zora-kerti, gagi da javaxeTi~-T Semoifargleboda, rac imas niSnavs, rom saqarTvelosa da somxeTs Soris sazRvari bambakis qedze gadioda. amasve adasturebs Zevli istoriuli tradiciebic [80].

rac Seexeba Woroxisa da mtkvris auzebs, rogorc cnobilia _ `...am auzebSi Semavali yoveli calkeuli xeoba Zvelad tomis an gvaris adgilsacxovriss warmoadgenda, bunebrivi pirobebi yofda calkeul tomebs erTmaneTisagan. Zveli tomobrivi sazRvrebi met-naklebad emTxveva feodaluri xanis administraciul danawev-rebas.

Woroxis xeobaSi xuTi ZiriTadi provinciaa: TorTomi, olTisi, tao, klarjeTi, SavSeTi. amave xeobas ekuTvnis Woroxis Senakadis aWariswyalze mdebare aWara. mtkvris xeobaSi ki _ kola, artaani, javaxeTi, samcxe, qarTli, kaxeTi, hereTi (qarTli Tavis mxriv Seicavs calkeul mxareebs _ Sida qarTls, taSirs, abocs, TrialeTs...), mtkvris xeobas ekuTvnis aRmosavleT saqarTvelos mTianeTi: xevi, fxovi (xevsureTi), fSavi, TuSeTi, TianeTi...

lixis mTis dasavleTiT mdebare nawili saqarTvelos `lixT-imeris~ zogadi saxeliT aRniSnuli, aseve Sedgeba calkeuli qveynebisagan _ Zvelad calkeuli tomebiT dasaxlebuuli miwa-wyalisagan. es qveynebia: egrisi, suaneTi, raWa, Takueri, guria, afSileTi, afxazeTi, argueTi, samoqalaqo...~[81].

aqve unda aRvniSnoT, rom _ `...saqarTvelos teritoriaze Tamaris dros arsebobda ramdenime msxvili saerisTavT-saerisTavo: 1. svaneTis (erisTavT-erisTavi: vardanisZeTa gvari); 2. raWisa da Takveris (kaxaberisZe), 3. cxumis (ServaSiZe), 4. odiSis (bediani), 5. qarTlis (surameli), 6. kaxeTis (ZaganisZe), 7. hereTis (grigolis Ze), 8. samcxis (spasalari jayeli)...~[82].

Tamaris droindeli saqarTvelos sazRvrebi kargad Cans monRolebis mier, saqarTvelos dapyrobis Semdeg, ganxorcie-lebul administraciul reformaSi.

rogorc istoriografiidanaa cnobili, monRolebi saqarT-veloSi pirvelad 1220 wels gamoCndnen[83], xolo qveynis dapyroba 1235-1242/43 wlebSi ganxorcielda[84]. marTalia monRolebi dasavleT saqarTveloSi ar gadasulan, magram rusudan mefis mier monRolebTan 1242 wels dadebuli zavis pirobebi mTel saqarTveloze vrceldeboda. saqarTvelos xelisuflebis mier kontrolirebad teritoriebidan, monRolebma daikaves qveynis _ `...aRmosavleTi da samxreTi nawilebi: kaxeTi, hereTi, Sida qarTli, somxiTi, taSiri, TrialeTi, javaxeTi, artaani, kola, klarjeTi, tao, SavSeTi da samcxe...~ [85].

rogorc zemoT aRvniSneT, monRolebs saqarTveloSi samxedro-administraciul reforma CautarebiaT. monRolTa saxelmwifos SemadgenlobaSi saqarTvelo Sevida, rogorc calke samxedro-administraciuli erTeuli _ `gurjistanis vilaieTis~ saxeliT, romelic Tavis mxriv 8 dumnad (aTiaTaseulad) iyo dayofili. TiToeuli am erTeulisa da misi mmarTvelis Sesaxeb detalur informacias gvawvdis JamTaaRmwereli.

`qarTlis cxovrebaSi~ vkiTxulobT _ `...da ganaCines TaTarTa bevrisa mTavarni, romelTa dumnisa Tavad uwodes. da gamoarCies mTavarni, pirvelad egarslan bakurcixeli, kaci Rrmad moubari, xolo ara niWTa mqonebeli samÃedroTa. da mas ÃelT-udevs spa hereTisa da kaxeTisa da kambeCianisa tfilisiTgan da aRmarT viTar mTamde Samaxiisa. da SanSe ÃelT-udevs mamuli misi da avagisi. varams ÃelT-udevs yoveli somxiTi, grigol suramels _ qarTli, gamrekels Torelsa, msgavsave egraslanisasa saWabukoTa Sina, ÃelT-udva javaxeTi, samcxe da aRmarT vidre karnuqala-qamde, xolo cotne dadiansa da raWis erisTavsa _ yoveli imeri samefo...~ [86].

maSasadame JamTaaRmwerelis cnobiT _ `...pirvel dumanSi Sdioda hereTi, kaxeTi da kambeCani vidre TeTriwylamde, Semaxiis mTebamde. am olqis dumnisTavad egarslan bakurcixeli dainiSna. meore dumans qvemo qarTli da misi aRmosavleTi Temebi (Samqoremde) Seadgenda. is msaxurTuxuces varlam gagels dau-qvemdebares. mesame dumnis meTauri mandaturTuxucesi SanSe mxargZeli iyo. igi ganagebda somxur Temebs. meoTxe dumans _ qarTls (Sida qarTli) meTaurobda gamrekel-Toreli, romlis sagamgeoSi javaxeTi Sedioda. meeqvse dumani aerTianebda danarCen mesxeTs karnu qalaqamde (arzrumamde). mas meTaurobda yvaryvare cixisjvareli-jayeli. dasavleT saqarTvelo or, meSvide da merve dumnebad dayves; maT ufrosebad cotne dadiani da raWis erisTavi daniSnes...~ [87].

monRolebis batonobam sagrZnoblad Searyia saqarTvelos erTianoba. 1259 wels daviT narinis ajanyebisa da 1266 wels sergi jayelis moqmedebebis Sedegad (samcxe xasinjud iqca), erTiani saqarTvelo 3 nawilad daiSala: dasavleT saqarTvelos _ daviT narini, samcxes, romlis sazRvrebSic erTiandeboda teritoria taSiskaridan karnu-qalaqamde, anu samcxe, aWara, SavSeTi, klarjeTi, tao, kola, artaani, javaxeTis nawili _ sergi jayeli[88], xolo danarCen saqarTvelos ki daviT ulu marTavdnen.

qveynis kvlav gaerTianeba da monRolebis batonobis gadagdeba giorgi V brwyinvalis (1314-1346 w.w.) saxels ukavSirdeba. rogorc istoriografiidanaa cnobili _ `...giorgi V brwyinvale 1329, xolo 1334 wlebSi imereTsa da samcxes daikavebs, riTac kvlav aRadgens qveynis erTianobas [89].

giorgi brwyinvales mier gaerTianebulma saqarTvelom XV s-is II naxevramde iarseba, rac 1490 wels saqarTvelos saboloo daSliT damTavrda, ris Semdegac saqarTvelo 4 nawilad daiSala _ dasavleT saqarTveloSi Camoyalibda imereTis samefo, aRmosavleTSi _ qarTlisa da kaxeTis samefoebi, samxreT saqarTvelos teritoriaze ki samcxis saaTabago[90].

 

XV-XVII saukuneebi

XV-XVII saukuneSi saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebul samefo-samTavroebSi arsebuli samxedro-administraciuli dayofa erTnair princips emyareboda. _ `...aRebul xanaSi adgilobrivi samoxeleo aparatis institutad gvevlineba sadroSi, romelic warmoadgenda samxedro-administraciul erTeuls...~ [91].

Tavis mxriv, sadroSoebis sistemas gacilebiT gvian XI saukuneSi eyreba safuZveli da Camoyalibebul saxes XII_XIII s-is mijnaze Rebulobs [92].

vaxuSti Semdegnairad gvixatavs XII-XVII s-Si arsebul sadro-Soebis sistemas _ `... winabrZolni iyvnen Torelni, cixisjva-relni da axalcixelni da mimyolni maTni sruliad mesxni da klarjni, da somxiTisa, romelni epyraT; xolo memarjuene mimsulel-mcemelni sruliad lixT-iqiTi afxaz-jiqiTurT; memarcxeneT mimsulel-mcemelni sruliad her-kaxni; xolo mefisa almis mpyrobelni qarTvelni da romeli roqiT spani epyras mefesa...~ [93].

axlad Camoyalibebul politikur erTeulebSi oTx-oTxi sadroSi daarsda. sadroSoTa Camoyalibeba qarTl-kaxeTsa da imereTis samefoSi daaxloebiT erTdroulad _ XV s-is 70-ian wlebSi ganxorcielda [94].

_ `...rac Seexeba odiSisa da guriis samTavroebs, TiTqos aqac 4-4 sadroSo Seiqmna, magram pirdapiri cnobebi XVI-XVII saukunee-bisaTvis ar mogvepoveba...~[95].

imdroindel _ `...qarTlis samefos samxreT-aRmosavleTiT yazaxisagan berdujis (papakaris) qedi hyofda. samxreTiT qarTls erevnis sabeglarbego ekvroda. qarTlis ukiduresi samxreTi provinciebi lore da bambaki iyo... CrdiloeTiT qarTlis samefos sazRvari or adgilas _ darialis xeobasTan da dvaleTSi _ mTavar qeds iqiT gadadioda. dvaleTis aRmosavleT nawili qarTlis mefes... emorCileboda, dasavleTi imereTis mefes. dasavleTiT qarTls imereTis samefo da samcxe-saaTabago esazRvreboda. qarTlis samefos SemadgenlobaSi Sedioda suramis qedis dasavleTiT mdebare axlandeli xaragaulis raionis didi nawili da saCxeris raionis zogierTi sofeli...~ [96].

qarTlis samefoSi Semavali 4 sadroSo Semdegnairad gamoiyureboda: mewinave sadroSos Seadgenda qvemo qarTli, romelsac Tavidan baraTaSvilebi, xolo Semdeg yaflanaSvilebi sardlobdnen. memarjvene sadroSos moicavda zemo qarTli, romlis sardlebic tradiciisamebr amilaxvrebi iyvnen[97]. memarcxene sadroSo, romelsac muxranbatonebi sardlobdnen _ muxrans, aragvsa da qsnis xeobebs aerTianebda. xolo bolo meoTxe _ mefis sadroSo aerTianebda teritorias Tbilisidan taSiskaramde mtkvris marjvena napirs moicavda, romlis sardladac mefe ciciSvilebs niSnavda. mefis sadroSoSi Sedioda qarTlis kaTalikosis laSqaric, rogorc calke erTeuli. mas Tavisi sardali hyavda[98].

kaxeTis samefo, romelsac samxreT-aRmosavleTiT Saqis feodaluri samflobelo, Crdilo-dasavleTiTa da CrdiloeTiT daRestnis feodaluri samflobeloebi, samxreTiT yarabaRis sabeglarbegos yazaxis samflobelo esazRvreboda.

dasavleTiT qarTlis samefos ekvroda _ `...fSavi da xevsureTi kaxeTSi Sedioda. aragvis SesarTavidan qarTlisa da kaxeTis sasazRvro xazi avWala-patara lilo_amarTulas mTa (sarTiWalis samxreTiT) md. aji-sus, anu mware wylis xazze gadioda (avWala da gldani kaxeTSi Sedioda, lilo _ qarTlSi). mware wyalsa da mtkvars Soris mdebare teritoriebi qarTls ekuTvnoda...~ [99].

kaxeTSi, qarTlisa da imereTisagan gansxvavebiT, sadroSoebs episkoposebi ganagebdnen.

qarTuli istoriografiidan cnobilia, rom gansaxilveli periodisaTvis, kaxeTis mewinave sadroSos qiziyi warmoadgenda, romlis sardalic iyo bodbeli episkoposi; memarcxene sadroSos rusTaveli episkoposi sardlobda da moicavda gare kaxeTs (martyof-saguramoTi); memarjvene sadroSos ki nekreseli episkoposi sardlobda da gaRma mxares moicavda [100].

rac Seexeba meoTxe _ mefis sadroSos, qarTul wyaroebSi masze Ria informacia araa, magram Sesabamisi daskvnis gamotana mainc SeiZleba _ `...cxadia, rom meoTxe sasardlo olqi moicavda maT CrdiloeTiT mdebare kaxur miwebs, qalaq gremis CaTvliT. amave droSaze iqneboda miwerili TuS-fSav-xevsurTa laSqaric. miT umetes, rom es mTiani kuTxeebi kaxTa mefeebis saxaso samflobeloebs warmoadgendnen. magram rac Seexeba didoeTs, romelic gansaxilvel epoqaSi kaxel bagrationTa moxarke qveyana iyo, misi sadroSoebSi Seyvana ar SeiZleba; vaxuSti garkveviT aRniSnavs, rom kaxeTis mosazRvre didoelebi `hymoben kaxTa mepatroneTa da aZleven sarkTa da ara laSqarTa~...~ [101].

qarTlis samefos dasavleTiT mdebareobda imereTis samefo. misi _ `...svaneTisa da afxazeTis CrdiloeTis sazRvari kavkasio-nis mTavar qeds mihyveboda, Crdilo-dasavleTiT imereTs svaneTi ekra, dasavleTidan ki samegrelo. imereTsa da samegrelos Soris sazRvari md. cxeniswyals misdevda. svaneTis samxreT-aRmo-savleTiT nawili (lentexi) da Takveri (leCxumi) imereTis same-fos SemadgenlobaSi iyo. samxreT-dasavleTiT imereTs guriis samTavro ekra. maT Soris sazRvari sajavaxos qeds misdevda da aWara-imereTis qeds ebjineboda..~ [102].

rac Seexeba dasavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebul samTavroTa sazRvrebs _ `...guriis samTavros samxreTi sazRvari md. Woroxze gadioda. samegrelos samTavros guriisgan md. rioni yofda. afxazeTsa da samegrelos Soris sazRvari jer md. kodorze gadioda, Semdeg ki (XVII s. 80-iani wlebidan) md. engurze. afxazeTs Crdilo-dasavleTiT jiqeTi sazRvravda, romelic adre saqarTvelos ekuTvnoda, am dros ki TurqeTis gavlenis qveSi iyo...~ [103].

imereTis samefo, tradiciisamebr, 4 sadroSod iyofoda _ `...pirvel sadroSos Seadgenda saCxeiZo-salominao da vake. meores _ argveTi, mesames _ raWa da meoTxes _ okriba-leCxumi...~ [104].

qveynis politikur-administraciul sammarTvelo sistemaSi gansakuTrebuli adgili ukavia mouravs _ `...mouravebi hyavdaT rogorc mefes da eklesia-monastrebs, ise Tavadebs TavianT mamulebSi.

mefis mouravi mxolod mefis saxaso mamulebs ganagebda. mas xeli ar miuwvdeboda eklesiisa Tu Tavadis mamulebze. amitom xSirad erTsa da imave sofelSi ramdenime mouravi iyo (mefis, eklesiis, Tavadis). zogi mouravi soflis nawils ganagebda, zogi ki, Tu es sofeli erT mebatones ekuTvnoda, mTel sofels. iyo iseTi samouravoebic, romlebSic ramdenime sofeli da mTeli provinciac Sedioda. magaliTad, kaxeTSi qiziyis, TianeTis, eniselis samouravoebi; qarTlSi somxiTis, TrialeTis, taSiris, da sxva; imereTSi leCxumis da sxva samouravoebi. Tavidanve es samouravoebi mTlianad mefis domeni (mamuli) iyo da mxolod misi mouravi ijda iq. SemdegSi mefis mier saxasodan mamulebis wyalobad gacemis Sedegad imave samouravoebSi Cndebodnen sxva feodalebis mamulebi da maTi moxeleebi (maT Soris mouravebic). ase moxda TianeTSi, qiziySi, eniselSi, somxiTSi, taSirSi, TrialeTsa da sxva. es procesi mTeli saqarTvelosTvis damaxasiaTebelia...~[105].

administraciuli mowyobis TavlsazrisiT gansxvavebuli situacia iyo samcxe-saaTabagoSi.

rogorc cnobilia 1579 wels osmalebma samcxe-saaTabgo daip-yres da aq Cildiris  (axalcixis) safaSo daaarses. samcxis saboloo dapyroba 1590 wels moxda, rodesac iransa da osmaleTs Soris dadebuli zaviT mTeli amierkavkasia osmaleTs gadaeca _ `...amieridan osmalebi kidev ufro energiulad Seudg-nen saaTabagoSi TavianTi miwismflobelobisa da miwasargeb-lobis wesebis SemoRebas, ramac asaxva pova `gurjistanis vilaieTis did davTarSi~...~ [106].

`gurjistanis vilaieTis didi davTris~ mixedviT samcxe 8 sanjayad (igive livad) iyo dayofili: 1) axalcixe, 2) xerTvisi, 3) axalqalaqi, 4) Caldiri, 5) focxovi, 6) petra, 7) fanaki da 8) didi artaani.

TiToeuli es sanjayi, Tavis mxriv moicavda Semdeg terito-rias: 

`...1. axalcixis livis raionebi _ mzvare, Crdili, ude, qvabliani, awyuri, alTunyala, ocxe, aspinZa da WaWaraqi.

2. xerTvisis _ xerTvisi, tyiani-javaxeTi, buzmareTi.

3. axalqalaqis _ akSehiri, Tmogvi, nialisyuri.

4. Caldiris _ janbazi, qanarbeli, mgeliscixe.

5. focxovis _ mzvare, Crdili.

6. petras _petra, qaSveTi.

7. fanakis _ fanaki, qiamxisi, fanaskerti.

8. didi artaani _ mzvare, Crdili, tyiani raioni. sul `davTris~ mixedviT samcxe-saaTabagoSi 1160 sofeli Sedioda...~[107].

mogvianebiT, kerZod XVII s-Si samcxe-saaTabagos administraciulma dayofam odnavi cvlilebebi ganicada _ `...XVII s. axalcixis safaSo 13 sanjayisagan Sedgeboda: olTisi, xerTvisi, artanuji, didi artaani, WaWaraqi, focxovi, maWaxela, aWara, fanaki (bana), feTereqi, livana, nisfi-livana da SavSeTi, samcxe-saaTabagos zogi provincia ki _ ispiri, TorTumi, patara artaani, namervani _ osmalebma sxva eialeTebSi gaaerTiana...~ [108].

rogorc cnobilia, 1724 wlidan aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi osmalebi gabatondnen, riTac daiwyo kidec `osmaloba~. _ `...1727 w. ieses gardacvalebis Semdeg, osmalebma qarTli 6 nawilad dayves da qarTvel feodalebs Caabares: somxiT-sabaraTiano _ erasti yaflaniSvils, zemo qarTli _ givi amilaxors, muxrani _ muxranbatons, mtkvris marjvena sanapiro _ mcxeTis zeviT _ bagrat ciciSvils, xolo aragvisa da qsnis saerisTaoebi Zvel erisTavebs...~[109].

_ `...XVIII s. 40-iani wlebidan qarTlisa da kaxeTis samefoebi erTimeores mWidrod daukavSirdnen. 1762 w. erekle mefem orive samefo taxti gaaerTiana. XVIII s. 60-70-ian wlebSi erkle meorem TvalsaCinod SezRuda Zlieri saTavadoebi da zogi maTgani kidec gaauqma (aragvis saerisTao _ 1743 w. da qsnis saerisTao _ 1777 w.). am saerisTaoebis mosaxleoba uSualod mefis moxeles, mouravs dauqvemdebares. centraluri mmarTvelobis ganmtkicebis mizans emsaxureboda qarTl-kaxeTis ganapira mxareebis gamgeblobaSi momxdari cvlilebebi: 1755 wels ereklem yazaxSi xanoba gaauqma da es qveyana samouravod aqcia, xolo 1765 wlisaTvis borCalo-baidarsac ukve mefis mouravebi ganagebdnen...~ [110].

rogorc cnobilia, dasavleT saqarTveloSi TavadTa sagva-reuloebis ricxvi didi ar iyo: XVIII s-is imereTis samefoSi TavadTa 20 gvari arsebobda, samegreloSi _ 11, guriis samTavroSi _ 6. amas garda, imereTis samefoSi 23 samouravo arsebobda [111].

XVII-XVIII s-Si afxazeTis samTavro patar-patara feodalur samflobeloebad iyo dayofili _ `...mTavar zegnay SarvaSiZis Svilebma samTavros teritoria gaiyves: ufross, rostoms _ ergo afxazeTis Crdilo nawili _ md. bzifsa da kodors Soris mdebare miwebi; SuaTanas, jiqeSias _ Sua sofeli (abJua), teritoria md. kodorsa da md. RaliZgas Soris, xolo , yvapus _ mdinare RaliZgasa da engurs Soris mdebare mxare, romelic samegrelosa da afxazeTis samTavroTa Soris omianobis dros Zalin mooxrda...~ [112].

DdaaxloebiT amdagvarive situaciaa svaneTSic _ `...rogorc adreve, am periodSiac svaneTis teritoria gavlenis or sferod iyofoda: `odiSis pirdapir mTebze~ mcxovrebi svanebi (cxe-niswylis xeobis mosaxleoba) samegrelos mTavars emorCileboda; svaneTis am nawils sadadiano svaneTi erqva. am mxareSi mdebareobda lentexis, Colurisa da laxSeTis Temebi. is svanebi, ki romlebic svaneTis sxva TemebSi cxovrobdnen, adridanve imereTis mefis xelqveiTebad iTvlebodnen. es mxare or nawilad iyofoda _ balsqvemo, an sadadeSqeliano svaneTad da Tavisufal svaneTad. aseTi dayofa eklesiuri dayofioTac iyo ganmtkicebuli: sadadiano da Tavisufali svaneTi cageris eparqiaSi Sedioda, xolo sadadeSqeliano svaneTi _ caiSis episkoposis samwyso iyo...~ [113].

 

XIX saukune

rogorc cnobilia, 1801 wlis 18 ianvars ruseTis imperatoris pavle I-is manifestiT, romelic imave wlis 12 seqtembris aleqsandre I-is manifestiTac dadasturda, ruseTis imperiam daarRvia 1783 wlis georgievskis traqtatis pirobebi da gaauqma qarTl-kaxeTis samefo; xolo mogianebiT 1810 wels ruseTis imperiam gaauqma imereTis samefo, riTac daasrula kidec saqarTvelos dapyroba.

XVIII-XIX s-Ta mijnaze, sanam ruseTis imperia Tavis mmarTve-lobis administraciul reformas Caatarebda, saqarTvelos same-fo-samTavroebSi, administraciuli TvalsazrisiT, Semdegi situacia iyo:

rogorc cnobilia, 1762 w. erekle II-m mamis, qarTlis mefe Teimuraz II-is, gardacvalebis Semdeg gaaerTiana qarTl-kaxeTis samefo; ris Semdegac _ `...gaerTianebuli samefo tradiciulad samxedro saxelmwifos warmoadgenda da 4 samxedro administra-ciul erTeulad sadroSod (sasardlod) iyofoda: mewinave sadroSos warmoadgenda qiziyis sasardlo. laSqris centri iyo samefo sadroSo, romelic kaxeTs, Sida qarTlsa da mtkvris xeobas moicavda. flangebs ki warmoadgendne erTis mxriv muxranbatonis sasardlo, romelSic Sedioda yofili aragvisa da qsnis saerisTaoebi, meores mxriv baraTaSvilis sasardlo, romelic moicavda qvemo qarTls...

imereTis samefo iyofoda vakis, okriba-leCxumisa da zemo mxaris sasardlod. odiSis samTavro zugdidis da senakis samouravoebad. guriis samTavro ozurgeTisa da nagomaris samouravoebad. afxazeTis samTavros Sida administraciul erTeulebs warmoadgenda: fsxu, bzifi, gumisTa, webelda, abJua, samurzayano. svaneTi dadeSqelianebis or Stos Soris iyo gayofili, mesame nawils warmoadgenda Tavisufali svaneTi.

dasavleT saqarTvelos mflobelTa Soris teritoriuli cilobis sagans warmoadgendnen: samurzayano (odiSis da afxazeTis samTavroebs Soris) da leCxumi (imereTis samefosa da odiSs Soris). SavizRvispira cixe-simagreebSi: foTSi, anakliasa da soxumSi osmalTa garnizonebi idgnen...~ [114].

ruseTis saimperatoro karma, saqarTveloSic iseTive politikur-administraciuli  sistema Camoayaliba, rogoric Tavad ruseTis imperiaSi arsebobda.

_ `...1802 wels umaRlesi samxedro da samoqalaqo Zalaufleba gadavida saqarTvelos mTavarsardlis (mTavarmarTeblis) xelSi. qarTli daiyo sam mazrad: goris, lores (1804 wlidan _ tfilisis), duSeTis (1803-1821 wlebSi _ ananuris); kaxeTi ki or mazrad: Telavisa da siRnaRis...~ [115]. rac Seexeba saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebul im regionebs, sadac didi raodenobiT mahmadianuri mosaxleoba cxovrobda, Seiqmna _ borCalos, yazaxis, SamSadilis, bambakis da Suragelis distanciebi [116].

rac Seexeba dasavleT saqarTvelos, aq Seiqmna imereTis samxedro olqi, romelic _ quTaisis, Sorapnis, vakis, raWis, Cxaris, saCxeris okrugebad iyofoda. Tumca, 1814 wlisaTvis gauqmda Cxerisa da saCxeris okrugebi da imereTi 4 okrugad daiyo [117].

_ `...1804-1813 wlebis ruseT-sparseTis omi dasrulda giulistanis zaviT. sparseTma cno ruseTis uflebebi aRmosav-leT saqarTveloze, daRestansa da Tavis yofil  saxanoebze (yarabaRi, ganja, Sirvani, Saqi, baqo, darubandi, yuba, TaliSi)...~ [118]. ganjis saxano uSualod saqarTvelos mTavarmarTebels dauqvemdebares _ elizavetopolis okrugis saxeliT.

1829 wels osmaleT-ruseTis omi adrianopolis zaviT dasrulda. _ `...ruseTma osmaleTisagan miiRo axalcixis safaSos (Cildiris vilaieTis) 8 sanjayi: axalcixe, axalqalaqi, awyuri, abasTumani, adigeni, WaWaraqi, xerTvisi, qvabliani. es teritoria axalcixis olqis saxelwodebiT SeuerTda saqarTvelos samTavarmarTeblos...~ [119].

rogorc cnobilia, ruseTis mier kavkasiis dapyrobis I etapi XIX s-is 30-ian wlebSi damTavrda. ris Semdegac, 1840 wlis 10 aprils senator pavle ganis proeqtis safuZvelze amierkavkasiis axali administraciuli reforma ganxorcielda. reformis Sedegad _ `...kavkasiaSi Seiqmna 3 msxvili administraciuli erTeuli:

saqarTvelo-imereTis gubernia (qristianuli mosaxleobiT),

kaspiis olqi (mahmadianuri mosaxleobiT) da

kavkasiis olqi (CrdiloeT kavkasiiis teritoria).

saqarTvelo-imereTis gubernia iyofoda 11 mazrad (tfilisis, goris, Telavis, belaqnis, quTaisis, axalcixis, guriis, elizavetopolis, aleqsandropolis, erevnis, naxiCevanis) da 44 saboqaulod. faqtiurad saqarTvelos teritoriaze pirvelad Camoyalibda samsafexurovani administraciuli sistema, romelic saqarTvelosaTvis damaxasiaTebeli Seiqna da TiTqmis saukunenaxevaria garkveuli cvlilebebiT dRemde arsebobs...~ [120].

1844 wlisaTvis aRmosavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze 4 mazra da 4 okrugi arsebobda. esenia:

1) tfilisis mazra _  romelic moicavda tfilisis, sarTiWalis, borCalos, duSeTis saboqauloebs;

2) goris mazra _ qsnis, suramis, xidisTavis saboqauloebi;

3) Telavis mazra _ Telavis, yvarlis saboqauloebi;

4) siRnaRis mazra _ siRnaRisa da ukana mxaris saboqauloebi;

5) belaqanis okrugi _ belaqnis, elisus, eniselis saboqau-loebi;

6) mTielTa okrugi _ xevisa da mTiuleTis saboqauloebi;

7) TuS-fSav-xevsurTa okrugi _ xevsureTis, TuSeTisa da fSavis saboqauloebi;

8) oseTis okrugi _ naris, javis, mcire liaxvis, geris saboqauloebi [121].

rac Seexeba dasavleT saqarTvelos, aq 2 mazra arsebobda:

1) quTaisis (romelic Tavis mxriv moicavda _ vakis, quTaisis, saCxeris, raWis, sabukis, Sorapnis sapolicio ubnebs) da

2) guriis (ozurgeTisa da akeTis sapolicio ubnebi).

calke iyo afxazeTis samTavro, sadac ruseTis saimperatiro karma 4 _ bzifis, afxazeTis, abJuasa da samurzayanos samxedro okrugebi Camoayaliba.

rogorc cnobilia, 1844 wlidan kavkasiis regionis mmarTvelad mefisnacvali dainiSna [122]. 1846 wels ki axali administraciuli reforma ganxorcileda. _ `...samefisnacvlo 4 guberniad daiyo: tfilisis, quTaisis, darubandis, Semaxis...~ [123].

tfilisis gubernia aerTianebda:

1) tfilisis, 2) goris, 3) Telavis, 4) siRnaRis, 5) elizaveto-polis, 6) erevnis, 7) naxiCevanisa da 8) aleqsandropolis mazrebs, 9) mTielTa, 10) osTa da 11) TuS-fSav-xevsurTa okrugebs.

1849 wels Seiqmna erevnis gubernia, romelSic gaerTianda erevnis, naxiCevanisa da aleqsandropolis mazrebi. xolo axalqalaqis saboqaulo, romelic alesandropolis mazraSi Sedioda, quTaisis guiberniaSi Semaval axalcixis mazras gadaeca.

quTaisis gubernia aerTianebda:

1) quTaisis, 2) raWis, 3) Sorapnis, 4) ozurgeTisa da 5) axal-cixis mazrebs. 1848 wels mas SeuerTda samurzayanos okrugi. Tavis mxriv, raWis mazra iyofoda 4: bugeulis, kudaro-mamisonis, ewerisa da xotevis sapolicio ubnebad. Sorapnis mazra: argveTis, dimis, saCxeris, sveris, xaragaulis, Cxaris da Sorapnis sapolicio ubnebad.

1846 wels axalcixis mazra daiyo: 1) axalcixis, 2) xerTvisisa da 3) abasTumnis sapolicio ubnebad. 1867 wels axalcixis mazra Tbilisis gubernias SeuerTda.

1860 wels Seiqmna zaqaTalas okrugi, romelic aerTianebda:

1) aliabadis, 2) belaqnis, 3) War-muxaxisa da 4) kakis sabo-qauloebs [124].

morigi administraciuli cvlileba XIX s-is 60-ian wlebs ukavSirdeba, roca ruseTis xelisuflebam saqarTveloSi arsebuli avtonomiuri samTavroebi gaauqma.

1867 wels odiSis samTavros gauqmebis Semdeg is _ `...zugdidis, senakisa da leCxumis mazrebis sxiT Sevida quTaisis guberniaSi.

1859 wels svaneTis samTavros gauqmebiT ruseTis mTavrobam svaneTis Temebi moaqcia svaneTis saboqauloSi, romelic daeqvemdebara leCxumis mazras.

1864 wels, proTurquli orientaciis braldebiT, ruseTis xelisuflebam gaauqma afxazeTis samTavro da masTan webeldisa da samurzayanos saboqauloebis mierTebiT Seqmna soxumis samxedro ganyofileba, romelic 1868 wels daiyo biWvinTis (gudauTis da gumisTis sapolicio ubnebi) da oCamCiris (kodorisa da samurzayanos sapolicio ubnebi) okrugebad...~ [125].

1870 wels tfilisis gubernia 6 mazras aerTianebda:

1) tfilisis (TrialeTisa da lores saboqauloebi), 2) goris, 3) duSeTis, 4) Telavis (TianeTis saboqauloTi), 5) siRnaRis (Siraqis saboqauloTi) da 6) axalcixis (axalqalaqis saboqau-loTi).

1874 wels tfilisis guberniis SigniT kidev 2 mazra Seiqmna: TianeTisa da axalqalaqis.

1880 wels TrialeTisa da lores saboqauloebis gaerTianebiT Seiqmna borCalos mazra [126].

1877-1878 wlebis ruseT-TurqeTis omi, ruseTis gamarjvebiT damTavrda. san-stefanos zaviT ruseTma miiRo istoriuli samxreT saqarTvelos didi nawili, romlis bazazec Camoyalibda ori _ baTumisa da yarsis olqebi [127]. mogvianebiT, 1883 wels, baTumis olqi (baTumis, arTvinisa da aWaris olqebi) quTaisis gubernias miuerTes, xolo 1886 wels soxumis samxedro ganyofileba gardaiqmna soxumis olqad.

1886 wlisaTvis sabolood Camoyalibda 4 safexuriani struqtura: kavkasiis mxare _ guberniebi _ mazrebi _ sapolicio ubnebi.

1900 wlisaTvis saqarTveloSi administraciuli TvalsazrisiT, Semdegi mdgomareoba iyo:

tfilisis gubernia iyofoda 9 mazrad da 1 olqad:

1) tfilisis mazra _ sarTiWalis, yaraias, tfilisis sapo-licio ubnebi;

2) axalqalaqis mazra _ baraleTis, bogdanovkis sapolicio ubnebi;

3) axalcixis mazra _ qvablianis, awyuris, uravelis sapo-licio ubnebi;

4) borCalos mazra _ borCalos, ekaterinenfeldis, lores, TrialeTis sapolicio ubnebi;

5) goris mazra _ borjomis, mejvrisxevis, suramis, xidisTavis, cxinvalis sapolicio ubnebi;

6) duSeTis mazra _ bazaleTis, mcxeTis, qsnis, qveSeTis sapolicio ubnebi;

7) siRnaRis mazra _ bakurcixis, kodalos, maCxaanis, Siraqis sapolicio ubnebi;

8) Telavis mazra _ yvarelis, winandalis sapolicio ubnebi;

9) TianeTis mazra _ fSav-xevsureTis, erwos, TuSeT-kaxeTis sapolicio ubnebi;

10) zaqaTalis olqi _ aliabadis, belaqnis, War-muxaxis, kakis sapolicio ubnebi.

rac Seexeba quTaisis gubernias, 1900 wlisaTvis is aerTianebda 7 mazrasa da 3 olqs. kerZod:

1) quTaisis mazra _ quTaisis, tyibulis, baRdadis, samtrediisa da xonis sapolicio ubnebi;

2) zugdidis mazra _ zugdidis, walenjixisa da redut-yales sapolicio ubnebi;

3) leCxumis mazra _ alpanis, cagerisa da svaneTis sapolicio ubnebi;

4) ozurgeTis mazra _ gurianTis, lanCxuTisa da Coxatauris sapolicio ubnebi;

5) raWis mazra _ onisa da ambrolauris sapolicio ubnebi;

6) senakis mazra _ abaSis, martvilisa da senakis sapolicio ubnebi;

7) Sorapnis mazra _ yvarelis, saCxeris, WiaTuris, Cxarisa da wifis sapolicio ubnebi;

8) arTvinis olqi _ arTvinis, artanujisa da SavSeT-imerxevis sapolicio ubnebi;

9) baTumis olqi _ zemo aWaris, qvemo aWaris, goniosa da kintriSis sapolicio ubnebi;

10) soxumis olqi _ gumisTis, kodorisa da gudauTis sapo-licio ubnebi [128].

_ `...amgvari administrireba ucvleli darCa ruseTis imperiis arsebobis periodSi. mxolod 1903 wels moxda quTaisis guberniis morigi teritoriuli cvlileba.

soxumis, baTumisa da arTvinis olqebi CamoSorda gubernias. baTumisa da arTvinis olqebi gaerTianda baTumis olqSi, soxumis olqi ki calke administraciul erTeulad Sevida kavkasiis samefisnacvloSi. 1904 wels ruseTis xelisuflebam soxumis olqs CamoaWra gagris seqtori da SavizRvispireTis guberniis soWis olqs miuerTa...~[129].

 

XX saukune

1918 wlis 26 maiss kviras 4 saaTsa da 50 wuTze, kavkasiis mefisnacvlis yofil rezidenciaSi, noe Jordaniam waikiTxa _ `saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aqti~ _ romlis pirvel muxlSi vkiTxulobT _ `amieridan saqarTvelos xalxi suverenul ufle-baTa matarebelia da saqarTvelo sruluflebovani damoukidebe-li saxelmwifo~[130].

1918 wlis agvistoSi miRebul iqna kanoni, romelic saqarTve-los administraciul mowyobis sakiTxs Seexeboda _ `...miRebuli kanonis safuZvelze saqarTvelo dayofil iqna Semdeg administraciul erTeulad:

Tbilisis gubernia Svidi mazriT,

quTaisis gubernia Svidi mazriT,

soxumis olqi,

zaqaTalas olqi.

1920 wlis ivlisidan calke administraciul erTeulad gamoiyo baTumis olqi. A

avtonomiuri mxaris statusi miiRes: afxazeTma (q. soxumis olqi), samuslimano saqarTvelom (baTumis olqi) da zaqaTalis olqma.

SemoiRes orsafexuriani administraciuli struqtura. guber-niaSi umaRlesi administraciuli moxele iyo guberniis komisari, olqSi _ olqis komisari, mazraSi _ mazris komisari. guberniis, olqisa da mazris komisariates hyavdaT TavianTi aparati...~ [131].

saqarTvelos damoukidebelma respublikam 3 weli iarseba. 1921 wlis 11-12 Tebervlis Rames, borCalos mazraSi ganxorcielebuli provokaciiT dawyebuli saqarTvelo-ruseTis omi 1921 wlis 25 Tebervals, TbilisSi me-11 wiTeli armiis SemosvliTa da saqarTvelos gasabWoebiT dasrulda [132].

1922 wlis 30 dekembers Seiqmna sabWoTa kavSiri, romlis SemadgenlobaSic 4 mokavSire respublika Sevida _ ruseTi, ukraina, belorusia da amierkavkasiis federacia.

amierkavkasiis sabWoTa socialistur federaciulma respubli-kam 1936 wlamde iarseba. respublika 3 subieqtisgan Sedgeboda: saqarTvelo, somxeTi da azerbaijanis ssr.

Amierkavkasiis federaciis daSlis Semdeg saqarTvelos ssr-Si 3 avtonomiuri erTeuli Seiqmna _ `...afxazeTis ssr, romelic samokavSireo xelSekrulebiT iyo dakavSirebuli saqarTvelos-Tan (1931 wlidan afxazeTis statusi Seicvala da igi avtonomiur respublikad gamocxadda), aWaristanis assr (avtonomiuri sabWoTa socialisturi respublika) da samxreT oseTis ao (avtonomiuri olqi)...~[133].

aRmosavleT saqarTvelos teritoriaze 30 raioni Seiqmna: tfilisis olqi (centri _ q. tfilisi), romelic aerTianebda: yazbegis, duSeTis, erwo-TianeTis, sagarejos (1930 wlamde _ garekaxeTi), mcxeTis, sarvanis (borCalos), luqsemburgis (bolnisi), baSkiCeTis, aRbulaRis, manglisis, guniayalas (mogvianebiT _ walkis), tfilisis raionebad;

goris olqi (centri _ q. gori) _ kaspis, goris, xaSurisa da borjomis raionebi;

kaxeTis olqi (centri _ q. gurjaani) _ qiziyis (siRnaRi), lagodexis, yvarelis, Telavisa da gurjaanis raionebi;

samxreT oseTis ao (centri _ q. cxinvali) _ cxinvalis, javisa da axalgoris raionebi;

axalqalaqis mazra _ axalqalaqis da gorelovkas raionebi;

axalcixis mazra _ axalcixe, adigeni, awyurisa da toloSis raionebi.

afxazeTis teritoriaze Camoyalibda 5 mazra: galis, gudauTis, oCamCiris, gumisTisa (1929 wlidan _ soxumis) da gagris.

aWaris teritoriaze 1924 wels Seiqmna _ qedis, qobuleTis, Woroxis (1929 wlidan _ baTumis mazra) da xulos mazrebi. _ `...dasavleT saqarTvelos danarCen teritoriaze arsebobda Semdegi mazrebi: quTaisis, Sorapnis, senakis, zugdidis, ozurgeTis, zemo svaneTis, raWisa da leCxumis (1928 wlidan raWa-leCxumis).

calke administraciuli erTeuli iyo foTis saqalaqo sabWo.

1928 wels quTaisis mazras miuerTda raWa-leCxumisa da Sorapnis mazrebi da gardaiqmna msxvil administraciul erTeulad _ olqad, statusiT gauTanabrda avtonomiur erTe-ulebs...~ [134].

1940 wlisaTvis aRmosavleT saqarTveloSi 30, xolo dasavleT saqarTveloSi _ 25 raionia. ucvleli darCa afxazeTisa da aWaris administraciuli dayofa [135].

saqarTveloSi morigi administraciuli reforma 1951 wels ganxorcielda, ris Semdegac Tbilisis olqSi 29 raioni, quTaisis olqSi 28 raioni, afxazeTis assr-Si 6 raioni, aWaris assr-Si 4 raioni, samxreT oseTis ao-Si 4 raioni Camoyalib-da; 10 qalaqma ki gansakuTrebuli statusi miiRo.

1953 wlidan uqmdeba olqebi. qluxoris raioni CamoaWres saqarTvelos da stavropolis mxares gadasces.

1963 wlis administraciuli reformis Sedegad 71 raionis nacvlad camoyalibda 37 raioni (aRm. saq. 18, das. saq. 19), Tumca 1964-1966 wlebSi isev aRdga Zveli daraionebis sistema [136].

_ `...sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis win saqarTvelos ssr moicavda:

3 avtonomiur erTeuls, 65 raions, 10 respublikuri daqvemdebarebis qalaqs (Tbilisi, gori, marneuli, rusTavi, zugdidi, quTaisi, foTi, tyibuli, wyaltubo, WiaTura)...~[137].

1990 wlis 28 oqtombers saqarTvelos uzenaesi sabWos deputatebis arCevnebSi gamarjveba moipova erovnuli moZraobis yvelaze Zlierma frTam, saarCevno blokma `mrgvali magida _ Tavisufali saqarTvelo~.

_ `...es iyo 1919 wlis Semdeg pirveli Tavisufali arCevnebi, romelic mravalpartiuli sistemis pirobebSi ganxorciel-da...komunisturma erTpartiulma diqtaturam saqarTveloSi samocdaaTwliani arseboba daasrula da qveynis saTaveSi erov-nuli xelisufleba aRmoCnda.

erovnuli Zalebis xelisuflebaSi mosvlis Semdeg iwyeba im RonisZiebebisa da movlenebis seria, romelTa gareSec SeuZlebelia saxelmwifoebrivi damoukideblobis mopoveba. 1990 wlis 14 noembers saqarTvelo oficilurad gamocxadda respublikad. saqarTvelos uzenaesi sabWos Tavjdomared mis pirvelsave sesiaze arCeul iqna zviad gamsaxurdia...

axali xelisuflebis moskovTan damokidebulebis kursi ukompromiso iyo _ saqarTvelos sruli saxelmwifoebrivi damoukidebloba, sabWoTa kavSirisgan sruli gamoyofa.

1991 wlis 31 marts erovnulma xelisuflebam referendumi Caatara. mosaxleobas Tavisi neba unda gamoexata saqarTvelos damoukideblobis sakiTxze da amiT daedasturebina ara mxolod xelisuflebis, aramed mosaxleobis saerTo nebac.  referendumma sayovelTao masStabiT daadastura saqarTvelos mosaxleobis survili _ referendumSi monawileobda xmis uflebis mqone mosaxleobis 90%. qveynis damoukideblobis aRdgenas 1918 wlis 26 maisis saqarTvelos damoukideblobis aqtis safuZvelze mxari dauWira referendumSi monawileTa 97%. rac mTavarisa, saqarTvelos damoukideblobis ideas mxari dauWira qveynis araqarTulma mosaxleobamac.

referendumis safuZvelze 1991 9 aprils uzenaesma sabWom saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi damoukidebloba aRdgenilad gamoacxada.

1991 wlis 14 aprils saqarTvelos uzenaesma sabWom zviad gamsaxurdia respublikis prezidentad airCia, rac 26 maiss Catarebulma saprezidento arCevnebma daadastura. saprezidento arCevnebma kidev erTxel cxadyo, rom saqarTvelos mosaxleobis didi nawili zviad gamsaxurdias saxelTan akavSirebda erov-nuli Tavisuflebisa da saxelmwifoebrivi suverenitetis ganmtki-cebis saukunovan ideas...~ [138].

saqarTveloSi amJamad samsafexuriani teritoriul-adminis-traciuli mowyobaa:

`...zeda (e. w. regionaluri) done _ 12 regioni, maT Soris Tbilisi, afxazeTis da aWaris avtonomiuri respublikebi;

saSualo done (67 raioni da eqvsi qalaqi, romelic ar Sedis raionis daqvemdebarebaSi);

qveda done (sofeli, Temi, daba, qalaqi)...~ [139].

dReisaTvis zeda (anu regionaluri) done 12 erTeuls moicavs _ `...maTgan mxolod sami _ dedaqalaqi, afxazeTisa da aWaris avtonomiuri respublikebia konstituciiT dafiqsirebuli.

1993-95 wlebSi ekonomikuri, geografiuli, istoriuli da eTnikuri niSnis mixedviT moxda raionebis dajgufeba (avtonomiur respublikaSi Semavali raionebis garda), ris Semdegadac qveyana faqtobrivad cxra regionad daiyo:

Sida qarTli (q. cxinvali, gori, kaspi, qareli, xaSuri, java);

qvemo qarTli (q. rusTavi, bolnisi, gardabani, dmanisi, TeTri wyaro, marneuli, walka);

imereTi (q. quTaisi, baRdaTi, vani, zestafoni, Terjola, samtredia, saCxere, tyibuli, wyaltubo, WiaTura, xaragauli, xoni);

samcxe-javaxeTi (adigeni, aspinZa, axalcixe, axalqalaqi, borjomi, ninowminda);

samegrelo-zemo svaneTi (q. foTi, abaSa, zugdidi, martvili, mestia, senaki, Cxorowyu, walenjixa, xobi);

guria (lanCxuTi, ozurgeTi, Coxatauri);

raWa-leCxum-qvemo svaneTi (ambrolauri, lentexi, oni, cageri);

kaxeTi (axmeta, gurjaani, dedofliswyaro, Telavi, lagodexi, sagarejo, siRnaRi, yvareli);

mcxeTa-mTianeTi (axalgori, duSeTi, TianeTi, mcxeTa, yazbegi)...~ [140].

saqarTvelos teritoriaze arsebuli konfliqtebis gamo, qveynis konstituciaSi saxelmwifos teritoriuli mowyobis sakiTxi sabolood gadawyvetili araa. amsTan dakavSirebiT `saqarTvelos konstituciaSi~ vkiTxulobT _ `saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebrivi teritoriuli mowyoba ganisazRvreba konstituciuri kanoniT uflebamosilebaTa urTierTgamij-vnis principis safuZvelze qveynis mTel teritoriaze saqarTvelos iurisdiqciis srulad aRdgenis Semdeg~ [141].

konstituciiT mxolod Tbilisis sakiTxia gadawyvetili _ `saqarTvelos dedaqalaqis _ Tbilisis Sesaxeb~ kanoniT dedaqalaqi, 6 raionad iyofoda: vake-saburTalo, Zveli Tbilisi, didube-CuRureTi, isani-samgori, gldani-naZaladevi, didgori.

rac Seexeba saSualo (mmarTveelobis) dones, is 67 raioniTa da 6 damoukidebeli qalaqis saxiTaa warmomadge-neli _ `...damoukidebeli qalaqebi _ Tbilisi, quTaisi, rusTavi, foTi, baTumi da soxumi raionis SemadgenlobaSi ar Sedis.

2001 wlis 2 agvistos `adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobisa da mmarTvelobis Sesaxeb~ saqarTvelos organul kanonSi Setanili cvlilebebis Sedegad qalaqebs, romlebic raionul SemadgenlobaSi ar Sedian, sxva dasaxlebebis msgavsad, TviTmmarTveli erTeulis statusi mieniWaT. Tumca, amave dros am qalaqebs delegirebuli aqvT im uflebamosilebis ganxor-cielebac. rac amave organuli kanonis Tanaxmad, adgilobrivi mmarTvelobis kompetencias miekuTvneba...~ [142].

da bolos, qveda (TviTmmarTvelobis) done soflebs, Temebs, dabebs da qalaqebs aerTianebs, romlebic raionebSi erTiandebian _ `...sul saqarTveloSi 55 qalaqia, romelic raionis daqvemdebarebaSi Sedis, aseve 50 daba, 843 Temi da 165 sofeli, romlebic adgilobrivi TviTmmarTvelobis organoebs irCeven. amdenad, qveda (TviTmmarTvelobis) donze sul 1000-ze meti erTeulia, romlebic mTlianobaSi 4603 dasaxlebas moicavs...~ [143].

 

daskvnis magier

rogorc ukve aRvniSneT, saqarTvelos teritoriuli mowyoba, saqarTveloSi ganviTarebuli konfliqtebis gamo, konstituciiT gansazRvruli araa da am sakiTxis gadawyveta mas Semdegaa navaraudevi, rodesac saqarTvelos mTel teritoriaze kanonieri xelisuflebis iurisdiqcia gavrceldeba.

Cvenis azriT, sasurvelia, saxeldeba _ regioni Seicvalos, da mis magivrad qarTul cnobierebaSi myarad damkvidrebuli cneba _ mxare aRdges. 

dRevandeli realobidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelos administra-ciuli mowyobis zeda da saSualo doneebTan mimarTebaSi, ramdenime mosazreba SeiZleba gamoiTqvas.

rogorc aRvniSneT, saqarTvelos administraciuli mowyobis zeda done dRes 12 regionis, anu _ mxaris saxiTaa warmodgenili: 1) Sida qarTli, 2) qvemo qarTli, 3) imereTi, 4) samcxe-java-xeTi, 5) samegrelo-zemo svaneTi, 6) guria, 7) raWa-leCxum-qvemo svaneTi, 8) kaxeTi, 9) mcxeTa-TianeTi, 10) afxazeTisa da       11) aWaris avtonomiuri respublikebi, 12) Tbilisi.

Seqmnili realobidan gamomdinare, albaT gasaTvaliswinebeli iqneba _ mecamete mxaris, pirobiTi saxeliT _ cxinvalis olqis administraciuli rgolis Seqmna.

 rogorc aRiniSna, dReisaTvis, saqarTvelos administraciuli mowyobis _ e.w. saSualo mmarTvelobis done 67 raionisa da 6 damoukidebeli qalaqis (Tbilisi, quTaisi, rusTavi, foTi, baTumi da soxumi) saxiTaa warmodgenili.

dRevandeli mdgomareobisa da istoriuli tradiciebis gaTva-liswinebiT SesaZlebelad migvaCnia moxdes e.w. saSualo mmarTvelobiT rgolSi Semavali _ daraionebis Secvla, rac istoriuli tradiciebis gaTvaliswinebioT, axladwarmoqmnil regionSi, ramdenime arsebuli raionis gaerTianebis gziT SeiZleba ganxorcieldes. kerZod:

saqarTvelos administraciuli dayofiT, dRevandeli kaxeTis regioni (mxare) moicavs - axmetis, gurjaanis, dedofliswyaros, Telavis, lagodexis, sagarejos, siRnaRis, yvarelis municipali-tetebis teritoriasa da qarTvel mTielTa eTnografiul kuTxes _ TuSeTs.

istoriuli tradiciiT kaxeTis calkeul mxareebs ewodeboda:

1) garekaxeTi (md. ivris Sua weli),

2) qiziyi (md. ivris qvemo weli),

3) SignikaxeTi (md. alaznis marjvena sanapiro) da

4) gaRmamxari (md. alaznis marcxena sanapiro).

aRniSnulidan gamomdinare, SeiZleba gamovTqvaT varaudi, rom kaxeTis mxare daiyos 4 administraciul regionad: 1) garekexeTi, 2) qiziyi, 3) SignikaxeTi da 4) gaRmamxari, romlebic Tavis mxriv, istoriuli tradiciidan gamomdinare, Semdeg raionebs gaaerTianeben:

1) garekexeTi _ dRevandel sagarejos raions, centriT _ sagarejo;

2) qiziyi _ siRnaRisa da dedofliswyaros raionebi, centriT _ siRnaRi;

3) SignikaxeTi _ axmetis (TuSeTiTurT), Telavisa da gurja-anis raionebi, centriT _ Telavi;

4) gaRmamxari _ lagodexisa da yvarelis raionebi, centriT _ yvareli.

qvemo qarTli _ dRevandeli mdgomareobiT 7 raionadaa dayofili: rusTavi, bolnisi, gardabani, dmanisi, TeTri wyaro, marneuli da walka.

istoriuli tradiciis gaTvaliswinebiT, qvemo qarTlis daraionebaSi SeiZleba aRsdges _ TrialeTis regioni, romlis SemadgenlobaSi istoriuli tradiciidan gamomdinare, gaerTian-deba dRevandeli _ walkisa da dmanisis raionebi, centriT _ dmanisi.

imereTis mxaris administraciuli erTeulebia _ quTaisi, baRdaTi, vani, zestafoni, Terjola, samtredia, saCxere, tyibuli, wyaltubo, WiaTura, xaragauli, xoni.

istoriuli tradiciebis gaTvaliswinebiT, imereTis teritoriaze SeiZleba aRdges _ argveTis regioni, romelic, Tavis mxriv, gaaerTianebs xaragaulis, saCxeris, zestafonis, Terjolis, baRdaTis, tyibulisa da WiaTuris raionebs, centriT _ zestafoni.

istoriuli tradiciidan gamomdinare, sasurveli iqneba, dRevandel borjomis raions daubrundes istoriuli saxeli da ewodos Tori.

TavisTavad cxadia, rom qveynis administraciuli mowyoba, arsebuli politikur-ekonomiuri realobis gaTvaliswinebiT unda ganxorcieldes, romelic, udavod, qveynis istoriul tradiciaze iqneba damyarebuli.

 

 

 

 



[1]g. meliqiSvili - `samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobis  uZvelesi gaerTianebebi~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. I, Tb. 1970, gv. 361-362;

[2]g. meliqiSvili - `samxreT-dasavleT saqarTvelos mosaxleobis uZvelesi gaerTianebebi~, gv. 371;

[3]g. meliqiSvli - `qarTvel tomTa gaerTianebebi saqarTvelos teritoriaze Zv.w. II aTaswleulis bolos _ Zv.w. III saukuneSi~, `saqarTvelos istoria~, mTav. red. m. lorTqifaniZe, t. I, Tb. 2006, gv. 39;

[4]b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, Tb. 2009, gv. 6;

[5]b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 7;

[6] vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~ (saqarTvelos geografia)~, T. lomourisa da n. berZeniSvilis redaqciiT, Tb. 1941, gv. 95-96;

[7] vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 35;

[8] vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 38;

[9] vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 131;

[10]vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 133;

[11]vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 138;

[12] jansul kekelia _ `saqarTvelos sazRvrebi vaxuSti bagrationis Sromebis mixedviT~, kreb. `vaxuSti bagrationi geografia~, Tb. 1997, gv. 199;

[13]vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 142;

[14]vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 171-172;

[15]vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 172;

[16]vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv.162;

[17]vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 107-108;

[18] vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 67-68;

[19] vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 117;

[20] vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 118;

[21] vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 104-105;

[22] jansul kekelia _ `saqarTvelos sazRvrebi vaxuSti bagrationis Sromebis mixedviT~, kreb. `vaxuSti bagrationi geografia~, Tb. 1997, gv. 204;

[23]m. saluaSvili, s. saluaSvili _ `moqcevaÁ qarTlisaÁs~ redaqciebis paraleluri teqstebi~, Tb. 2010, gv. 10;

[24]m. saluaSvili, s. saluaSvili, `moqcevaÁ qarTlisaÁs~ redaqciebis paraleluri teqstebi~, Tb. 2010, gv. 10; - `...am cnobis Taobaze zogi sxva varianti gansxvavebul cifrebs gvTavazobs. `wm. ninos cxovrebis~ axali redaqciis avtori arsen beri (XII s.) ambobs, rom azom arian-qarTlidan moiyvana aTasi saxli `mdabioÁ soflisaÁ~ da aTi saxli `mTavarTagan~. azom iqidan moitana agreTve RmerTebis gacisa da gas kerpebi...~ ix. g. meliqiSvili - `qarTli (iberia) Zv.w. VI - IV saukuneebSi. qarTlis samefos warmoqmna~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. I, Tb. 1970, gv. 437;

[25] ix. favstos buzandi - `somxeTis istoria~, erevani 1953, gv. 126-163 (rusulad);

[26] g. meliqiSvili - `qarTli (iberia) Zv.w. VI-IV saukuneebSi. qarTlis samefos warmoqmna~, Tb. 1970, gv. 438;

[27] ix. `qarTlis cxovreba~, red. s. yauxCiSvili, t. I, Tb 1955, gv. 20;

[28] ix. `qarTlis cxovreba~, t. I, gv. 21-22;

[29] s. saluaSvili _ `gaqristianebamde, anu saqarTveloSi warmarTuli sarwmunoebis istoriis zogierTi sakiTxi~, Tb. 2009, gv. 30-31; agreTve ix. s. saluaSvili _ `qarTuli warmarTuli panTeonis qronologiis sakiTxisaTvis (qarTuli werilobiTi wyarebis mixedviT)~, Tb. 2011 w; vrclad ix. gaz. `JamTaaRmweri~, #3(16), 14(1) marti, Tb. 2011, gv. 6-8;

[30]-`qarTlis cxovreba~, t.I, gv. 26;

[31]`qarTlis cxovreba~, t. I, gv. 25;

[32] g. meliqiSvili - `qarTli (iberia) Zv.w. VI - IV saukuneebSi. qarTlis samefos warmoqmna~, Tb. 1970, gv. 439;

[33] `qarTlis cxovreba~, t. I, gv. 24-25;

[34] b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 12; ix. agreTve g. meliqiSvili _ `ax. w. pirveli saukuneebis qarTlis socialur-ekonomikuri da saxelwmifoebrivi wyobilebis sakiTxebi~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. I, Tb. 1970, gv. 649;

[35] ix. b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 12; ix. agreTve g. meliqiSvili _ `ax. w. pirveli saukuneebis qarTlis socialur-ekonomikuri da saxelwmifoebrivi wyobilebis sakiTxebi~, gv. 651;

[36] l. janaSia _ ` qarTli IV s. pirvel naxevarSi. qristianobis gamocxadeba saxelmwifo religiad~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. II, Tb. 1973, gv. 57;

[37] g. meliqiSvili - `saqarTvelo ax. w. I _ III saukuneebSi~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t I, Tb. 1970, gv. 567;

[38] l. janaSia _ ` qarTli IV s. pirvel naxevarSi. qristianobis gamocxadeba saxelmwifo religiad~, gv. 57-77; agreTve s. saluaSvili _ `qarTlis moqcevis TariRTa dakavSirebuli saistorio Ziebebi~, Tb. 2010;

[39] l. janaSia _ `brZola iranis agresiis winaaRmdeg qarTlSi IV saukunis meore naxevarsa da V saukunis pirvel naxevarSi~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. II, Tb. 1973, gv. 81;

[40] l. janaSia _ `brZola iranis agresiis winaaRmdeg qarTlSi IV saukunis meore naxevarsa da V saukunis pirvel naxevarSi~, gv. 84;

[41] l. janaSia _ `brZola iranis agresiis winaaRmdeg qarTlSi IV saukunis meore naxevarsa da V saukunis pirvel naxevarSi~, gv. 86;

[42] l. janaSia _ `qarTli V s. meore naxevarSi. vaxtang gorgasali~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. II, Tb. 1973, gv. 95;

[43] `qarTlis cxovreba~, mTav. red. r. metreveli, Tb. 2008, gv. 200-201;

[44] a. bogveraZe _ `adrefeodaluri qarTuli saxelmwifoebi VI-VIII saukuneebSi~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. II, Tb. 1973, gv. 285-286;

[45] s. janaSia, Sromebi, t. I, Tb. 1949, gv.368;

[46] `qarTlis cxovreba~, mTav. red. r. metreveli, gv. 235;

[47] `qarTlis cxovreba~, mTav. red. r. metreveli, gv. 240-241;

[48] `qarTlis cxovreba~, mTav. red. r. metreveli, gv. 241-242;

[49] m. lorTqifaniZe _ `axali feodaluri samTavroebis warmoqmna~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. II, Tb. 1973, gv.372;

[50] `qarTlis cxovreba~,  red. s. yauxCiSvili, gv. 250;

[51] aqve unda aRiniSnos, rom kaxeT-hereTis sazRvarTan dakavSirebiT, samecniero literaturaSi erTiani azri ar arsebobs da mas sxvadasxva mecnierebi erTmaneTisagan gansxvavebulad warmogvidgenen (ix. iv. javaxiSvili, `Txzulebani~, t. II, Tb. 1983, gv. 39-47; m. lorTqifaniZe, `feodaluri saqarTvelos politikuri gaerTianebis istoriidan~, Tb. 1963, gv. 19-23; d. musxeliSvili, `cixe-qalaqi ujarma~, Tb. 1966, gv. 9-37);

[52] m. lorTqifaniZe _ `axali feodaluri samTavroebis warmoqmna~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. II, Tb. 1973, gv.395;

[53] d. musxeliSvili, `cixe-qalaqi ujarma~, Tb. 1966, gv. 102;

[54] vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 100;

[55] `qarTlis cxovreba~, red. s. yauxCiSvili, gv. 5;

[56] m. lorTqifaniZe, `feodaluri saqarTvelos politikuri gaerTianebis istoriidan~, gv. 19-22; ix. agreTve m. lorTqifaniZe _ `axali feodaluri samTavroebis warmoqmna~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, gv. 406;

[57] vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 86;

[58] `qarTlis cxovreba~,  red. s. yauxCiSvili, gv. 298;

[59] `qarTlis cxovreba~,  red. s. yauxCiSvili, gv. 308;

[60] ix. m. lorTqifaniZe _ `axali feodaluri samTavroebis warmoqmna~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, gv. 408; b.kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 23;

[61] m. lorTqifaniZe _ `axali feodaluri samTavroebis warmoqmna~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, gv. 417;

[62] ix. iv. javaxiSvili, `Txzulebani~, t. II, Tb. 1983, gv. 49-52; s. janaSia, Sromebi, t. II, Tb. 1952 gv. 338; p.ingoroyva _ `grigol merCule~, gv. 207-215; m. lorTqifaniZe _ `feodaluri saqarTvelos politikuri gaerTianebis istoriidan~, gv. 180-185; m. lorTqifaniZe _ `axali feodaluri samTavroebis warmoqmna~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, gv. 418; `saqarTvelos istoria~, mTav. red. m. lorTqifaniZe, t. I, Tb. 2006, gv. 217;

[63]  m. lorTqifaniZe _ `axali feodaluri samTavroebis warmoqmna~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, gv. 446;

[64]  `qarTlis cxovreba~, s. yauxCiSvili, t. I, gv. 376;

[65]  `qarTlis cxovreba~, s. yauxCiSvili, t. I, gv. 253;

[66]  `qarTlis cxovreba~, s. yauxCiSvili, t. I, gv. 253;

[67]  m. lorTqifaniZe _ `axali feodaluri samTavroebis warmoqmna~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, gv. 451-452;

[68]  m. lorTqifaniZe _ `axali feodaluri samTavroebis warmoqmna~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, gv. 453;

[69]  m. lorTqifaniZe _ `axali feodaluri samTavroebis warmoqmna~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, gv. 459;

[70]  m. lorTqifaniZe _ `axali feodaluri samTavroebis warmoqmna~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, gv. 473;

[71]  m. lorTqifaniZe _ `axali feodaluri samTavroebis warmoqmna~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, gv. 478-479;

[72]  `saqarTvelos istoria~, mTav. red. m. lorTqifaniZe, t. I, Tb. 2006, gv. 232;

[73]  m. lorTqifaniZe _ `axali feodaluri samTavroebis warmoqmna~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, gv. 489;

[74]  m. lorTqifaniZe _ `axali feodaluri samTavroebis warmoqmna~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, gv. 489-490;

[75]  m. berZeniSvili _ `istoriul-geografiuli mimoxilva~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. III, Tb. 1979,gv. 67;

[76]  m. berZeniSvili _ `istoriul-geografiuli mimoxilva~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. III, Tb. 1979,gv. 67;

[77]  m. berZeniSvili _ `istoriul-geografiuli mimoxilva~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. III, Tb. 1979,gv. 67;

[78]  `qarTlis cxovreba~, mTav. redaq. r. metreveli, Tb. 2008, gv. 509;

[79]  m. berZeniSvili _ `istoriul-geografiuli mimoxilva~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. III, Tb. 1979, gv. 68;

[80]  ix. `qarTlis cxovreba~, s. yauxCiSvili, t. I, gv. 4; vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 35;

[81]  m. berZeniSvili _ `istoriul-geografiuli mimoxilva~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. III, Tb. 1979,gv. 70;

[82]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 47;

[83]  r. kiknaZe _ `monRolebi da maTi dapyrobiTi omebi~, `saqarTvelos iustoriis narkvevebi~, t. III, gv. 532-537;

[84]  r. kiknaZe _ `saqarTvelos dapyroba monRolTa mier~, t. III, gv. 546-551;

[85]  b. lominaZe _ `monRolTa batonoba saqarTveloSi da brZola mis winaaRmdeg (XIII s. 40 _ XIV s. 10-iani ww.)~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. III, Tb. 1979, gv. 558;

[86]  `qarTlis cxovreba~, mTav. redaq. r. metreveli, gv. 561;

[87]  b. lominaZe _ `monRolTa batonoba saqarTveloSi da brZola mis winaaRmdeg (XIII s. 40 _ XIV s. 10-iani ww.)~, gv. 553;

[88]  b. lominaZe _ `monRolTa batonoba saqarTveloSi da brZola mis winaaRmdeg (XIII s. 40 _ XIV s. 10-iani ww.)~, gv. 599;

[89]  b. lominaZe _ `monRolTa batonoba saqarTveloSi da brZola mis winaaRmdeg (XIII s. 40 _ XIV s. 10-iani ww.)~, gv. 629;

[90] b. lominaZe _ `saqarTvelo XV s. meore naxevarSi. erTiani saqarTvelos saboloo daSla samefoebad da samTavroebad~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. III, Tb. 1979, gv. 748-750;

[91]  `saqarTvelos samefo-samTavroebis saxelmwifoebrivi wyobileba XVI-XVII s.s.~, g. jamburia _ `adgilobrivi mmarTveloba~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. IV, Tb. 1973, gv. 238;

[92]  g. anCabaZe _ `kaxeTis sadroSoebis sakiTxi vaxuSti batoniSvilis TxzulebaSi~, krebulSi `vaxuSti bagrationi istorikosi da eTnografi 300~, Tb. 1997, gv. 94;

[93]  vaxuSti _ `aRwera samefosa saqarTvelosa~, Tb. 1941, gv. 30;

[94]  ix. a. klimiaSvili _ `masalebi XV-XVIII s.s. qarTlisa da kaxeTis sadroSoebis istoriisaTvis~, krebuli `XIV-XVIII s.s. ramdenime qarTuli istoriuli dokumenti~, Tb. 1964, gv. 122-123;

[95]  `saqarTvelos samefo-samTavroebis saxelmwifoebrivi wyobileba XVI-XVII s.s.~, g. jamburia _ `adgilobrivi mmarTveloba~, gv. 238;

[96]  `saqarTvelos samefo-samTavroebis saxelmwifoebrivi wyobileba XVI-XVII s.s.~, v. guCua _ `saqarTvelos politikuri ruka XVI-XVII s.s.~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. IV, Tb. 1973, gv. 226;

[97]  zemo qarTlis sadroSoze ixileT s. kakabaZe _ `sabuTi zemo-qarTlis sasardlos Sesaxeb~, `saistorio moambe~, t. I, Tb. 1925, gv. 255-260;

[98] ix. `saqarTvelos samefo-samTavroebis saxelmwifoebrivi wyobileba XVI-XVII s.s.~, g. jamburia _ `adgilobrivi mmarTveloba~, gv. 238; b. kupataZe _ `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 65;

[99] saqarTvelos samefo-samTavroebis saxelmwifoebrivi wyobileba XVI-XVII s.s.~, v. guCua _ `saqarTvelos politikuri ruka XVI-XVII s.s.~, gv. 225-226;

[100] `qarTlis cxovreba~, red. s. yauxCiSvili, Tb.1955, gv. 538, 542, 545; a. klimiaSvili _ `masalebi XV-XVIII s.s. qarTlisa da kaxeTis sadroSoebis istoriisaTvis~, krebuli `XIV-XVIII s.s. ramdenime qarTuli istoriuli dokumenti~, gv. 124; g. anCabaZe _ `kaxeTis sadroSoebis sakiTxi vaxuSti batoniSvilis TxzulebaSi~, krebulSi `vaxuSti bagrationi istorikosi da eTnografi 300~, gv. 95; `saqarTvelos samefo-samTavroebis saxelmwifoebrivi wyobileba XVI-XVII s.s.~, g. jamburia _ `adgilobrivi mmarTveloba~, gv. 239; kaxeTis memarcxene da memarjvene sadroSoebis sakiTxTan dakavSirebiT gansxvavebuli mosazreba aqvs giorgi anCabaZes. dawvrilebiT ixileT misi naSromi gv. 95-98;

[101]  g. anCabaZe _ `kaxeTis sadroSoebis sakiTxi vaxuSti batoniSvilis TxzulebaSi~, krebulSi `vaxuSti bagrationi istorikosi da eTnografi 300~, gv. 99;

[102]  `saqarTvelos samefo-samTavroebis saxelmwifoebrivi wyobileba XVI-XVII s.s.~, v. guCua _ `saqarTvelos politikuri ruka XVI-XVII s.s.~, gv. 226;

[103]  `saqarTvelos samefo-samTavroebis saxelmwifoebrivi wyobileba XVI-XVII s.s.~, v. guCua _ `saqarTvelos politikuri ruka XVI-XVII s.s.~, gv. 227;

[104]  `saqarTvelos samefo-samTavroebis saxelmwifoebrivi wyobileba XVI-XVII s.s.~, g. jamburia _ `adgilobrivi mmarTveloba~, gv. 239;

[105]  `saqarTvelos samefo-samTavroebis saxelmwifoebrivi wyobileba XVI-XVII s.s.~, g. jamburia _ `adgilobrivi mmarTveloba~, gv. 240;

[106]  m. svanizZe _ `samcxe-saaTabago XVI saukunis miwurulSi~, `qarTveli xalxis brZola damoukieblobisa da politikuri mTlianobis aRdgenisaTvis XVI saukuneSi~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. IV, Tb. 1973, gv. 150;

[107]  m. svaniZe _ `samcxe-saaTabago XVI saukunis miwurulSi~, `qarTveli xalxis brZola damoukideblobisa da politikuri mTlianobis aRdgenisaTvis XVI saukuneSi~, gv. 151;

[108]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, Tb. 2006, gv. 67-68;

[109]  d. megrelaZe _ `brZola osmalo dampyroblis winaaRmdeg~, `aRmosavleT saqarTvelo XVIII s. pirvel naxevarSi~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. IV, Tb. 1973, gv. 436;

[110]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 73;

[111]  ix. b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 77-78;

[112]  `dasavleTi da samxreTi saqarTvelo XVIII saukunis pirvel naxevarSi~, q. CxataraiSvili _ `dasavleT saqarTvelo XVIII s. pirvel naxevarSi~, `saqarTvelos istoriis narkvevebi~, t. IV, Tb. 1973, gv. 468;

[113]  `dasavleTi da samxreTi saqarTvelo XVIII saukunis pirvel naxevarSi~, q. CxataraiSvili _ `dasavleT saqarTvelo XVIII s. pirvel naxevarSi~, gv. 470-471;

[114]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 81;

[115]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 82;

[116]  ix. b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 82;

[117]  ix. `saqarTvelos istoria XIX saukune~, saxelmZRvanelo istoriis fakultetis studentebisaTvis, Tb. 2004, gv. 6-7;  b. kupataZe, `saqarT-velos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 82;

[118]  `saqarTvelos istoria XIX saukune~, gv. 7;

[119]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 82-83;

[120]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 83;

[121]  ix. b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 84;

[122]  ix. `saqarTvelos istoria XIX saukune~, gv. 117;

[123]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 84;

[124]  ix.b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 84-85;

[125]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 85;

[126]  ix. b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 85;

[127]  ix. b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 85, `saqarTvelos istoria XIX saukune~, gv. 185-191;

[128] ix. b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 86,  `saqarTvelos istoria XX saukune~, saxelmZRvanelo istoriis fakultetis studentebisaTvis, Tb. 2003, gv. 5-6;

[129]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 86;

[130]  saqarTvelos erovnuli arqivis, saistorio centraluri arqivi _ fondi 1833, aRw. 1, saq. 541 ; agreTve fondi 1836, aRw. 1, saq. 99;

[131]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 112; ix. agreTve `saqarTvelos istoria XX saukune~, gv. 63;

[132]  `saqarTvelos istoria XX saukune~, gv. 81-85;

[133]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 125;

[134]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 126;

[135]  vrclad ixileT b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 126;

[136]  ix. b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 126-127;

[137]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 127;

[138]  `saqarTvelos istoria XX saukune~, gv. 224;

[139]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 131;

[140]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 131;

[141]  `saqarTvelos konstitucia~, Tb. 1995, gv. 4;

[142]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 133;

[143]  b. kupataZe, `saqarTvelos xelisuflebis istoria~, gv. 133;